My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. 4 Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual purpose of schooling

1.1.1.1. teach cognitive skills (reading, writing, math)

1.1.1.2. transmit specific knowledge (literature, history, sciences, etc.)

1.1.1.3. teach higher order thinking skills (analysis, evaluation, synthesis)

1.1.2. 2. Political purpose of schooling

1.1.2.1. teach patriotism

1.1.2.2. teach basic laws of society

1.1.2.3. teach political participation

1.1.2.4. assimilate diverse cultural groups into common political order

1.1.3. 3. Social purpose of schooling

1.1.3.1. teach to solve social problems

1.1.3.2. socialize children into roles, behaviors, and values of society

1.1.3.3. ensure social cohesion

1.1.4. 4. Economic purpose of schooling

1.1.4.1. prepare students for future career

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. 1.Role of school

1.2.1.1. conservative perspective

1.2.1.1.1. provide necessary education training to maximize economic and social productivity

1.2.1.1.2. socialize children into adult roles necessary to maintain social order

1.2.1.1.3. transmitting cultural traditions through the cirriculum

1.2.1.2. liberal perspective

1.2.1.2.1. provide education to ensure all students have an equal opportunity to succeed

1.2.1.2.2. teach children to respect cultural diversity to fit into society

1.2.1.2.3. teach the importance of citizenship

1.2.1.2.4. enable the student to develop talents, creativity, and sense of self

1.2.1.3. radical perspective

1.2.1.3.1. eliminate inequalitites

1.2.1.3.2. serve the interests of those with economic wealth and political power

1.2.2. 2. Explanation of unequal performance

1.2.2.1. conservative perspective

1.2.2.1.1. students rise and fall on their own

1.2.2.2. liberal perspective

1.2.2.2.1. students begin school with different life chances, so some have more of an advantage than others

1.2.2.3. radical perspective

1.2.2.3.1. agree with liberals but also think conditions are caused by economic system not educational system

1.2.3. 3. Definition of educational problems

1.2.3.1. conservative perspective

1.2.3.1.1. decline of standards

1.2.3.1.2. decline of cultural literacy

1.2.3.1.3. decline of values/civilization

1.2.3.1.4. decline of authority

1.2.3.2. liberal perspective

1.2.3.2.1. limiting of life chances of the poor/minorities

1.2.3.2.2. limiting the role of helping students by too much emphasis on discipline and authority

1.2.3.2.3. diverse cultures of the pluralistic society being left out of traditional cirriculum

1.2.3.2.4. differences in urban and suburban schools (schools with low socioeconomic backgrounds and schools with high socioeconomic background)

1.2.3.3. radical perspective

1.2.3.3.1. educational system failing the poor, minorities, and women

1.2.3.3.2. curriculum that promotes conformity

1.2.3.3.3. curriculum that leaves out cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed

1.2.3.3.4. educational system promotes inequality

2. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

2.1. Most influential reform movement of education

2.1.1. The Rise of the Common School

2.1.1.1. When? 1820-1860

2.1.1.2. Who? Horace Mann

2.1.1.3. What? Free public education

2.2. Historical interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1.1. School system that is equal for all

2.2.1.2. Social goals just as important as intellectual goals

2.2.1.3. Education system must move closer to equality and excellence

3. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

3.1. Functionalism

3.1.1. Society works efficiently when working together

3.2. Conflict Theory

3.2.1. giving power to those who are high society

3.3. Interactionalism

3.3.1. teacher/student relationships, what goes on inside the classroom

3.4. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals That Had The Greatest Impact

3.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.4.1.1. a student with motivation equals more knowledge

3.4.2. Employment

3.4.2.1. students who have college degrees make more money

3.4.3. Teacher Behavior

3.4.3.1. students model teachers

3.4.3.2. the more praise from teachers the better the confidence level in the students

3.4.4. Peer Groups and Alienation

3.4.4.1. conflicts of cliques leads to alienation and violence

3.4.5. Gender

3.4.5.1. Discrimination between men and women

3.4.5.2. stereotyped by behavior

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. We're placed on Earth alone to deal with the encounters we come in contact with

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. Soren Kierkegaard

4.1.2.2. Martin Buber

4.1.2.3. Karl Jaspers

4.1.2.4. Jean Paul Sartre

4.1.2.5. Maxine Green

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. Focus on needs of individuals both cognitively and affectively

4.1.3.2. Individuality

4.1.3.3. Liberating

4.1.4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. Know their own lived worlds so they can help the students

4.1.4.2. Take risks

4.1.4.3. Introspeciton

4.1.4.4. Intensely personal

4.1.4.5. Help students understand the world

4.1.5. Method of Instruction

4.1.5.1. Discover which style work best for each student

4.1.6. Cirriculum

4.1.6.1. Based on Humanities

4.1.6.2. Based on Literature

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. State Senators

5.1.1. Luther Strange

5.1.2. Richard Shelby

5.2. House of Representatives District 28

5.2.1. Craig Ford

5.3. State Superintendent

5.3.1. Interim Ed Richardson

5.4. Etowah County Superintendent

5.4.1. Alan Cosby

5.5. Etowah County School Board

5.5.1. Tim Womack

5.5.2. Ernie Payne

5.5.3. Todd Hindsman

5.5.4. Scarlett Farley

5.5.5. Doug Sherrod

5.5.6. Danny Golden

5.5.7. Tim Langdale

5.6. Elements of Change

5.6.1. School Processes

5.6.1.1. Conflicts

5.6.1.2. Team Building

5.6.2. School Culture

5.6.2.1. Behaviors

5.6.2.2. Processes

5.6.2.3. Content

6. Cirriculum & Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. Developmentalist curriculum

6.1.1. relates to the needs of the student

6.1.2. student centered

6.1.3. based on particular development stages

6.1.4. flexibility on what is taught and to who

6.2. Dominant traditions of teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic tradition

6.2.1.1. information is transmitted from teacher to student

6.2.1.2. can be judged from right or wrong

6.2.1.3. not limited to bookish learning

6.2.2. Transformative tradition

6.2.2.1. deeply integrated within the psychological makeup of student

6.2.2.2. exalted and noble

6.2.2.3. teacher as an artist

6.2.2.4. use of modeling, soft suasion, narrative

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Impact on educational outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. correlation between parental income and student's performance on tests, ability groups, cirriculum

7.1.1.2. higher class income students are more likely to enroll in college

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. minority students receive fewer opportunities than whites

7.1.2.2. minorities underachieve compared to whites

7.1.2.3. minorities do not receive the same opportunities as whites

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. gender differences have been reduced in the last 20 years

7.1.3.2. men receive preferential treatment within schools

7.1.3.3. women are discriminated against occupationally and socially

7.2. Coleman Study from 1982

7.2.1. private schools are better for those students with low income

7.2.2. where one goes to school is related to their race and socioeconomic background

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Cultural differences theory

8.1.1. John Ogbu

8.1.1.1. African-American children do poorly in school due to their oppressed position in class

8.1.1.2. school success requires African-American students deny their own cultural identities and accept the dominant culture

8.1.2. Working class and non white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools

8.2. School centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. school financing

8.2.1.1. richer communities provide more per pupil spending

8.2.1.2. students from lower socio economic communities do not receive equal funding

8.2.2. school research

8.2.2.1. teachers cannot be blamed for low academic performance

8.2.2.2. takes away the responsibility from schools and teachers

8.2.2.3. school centered processes that help explain unequal educational achievement

8.2.3. between school differences

8.2.3.1. schools in working class neighborhoods have authoritarian and teacher directed pedagogic practices

8.2.3.2. schools in middle class communities have less authoritarian and more student centered pedagogic practices

8.2.4. within school differences

8.2.4.1. heterogeneous groups are difficult to teach

8.2.4.2. evidence is grouped by 4 important questions

8.2.4.3. differences in tracks help explain the variation in academic achievement

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. School based reforms

9.1.1. School-Business partnerships

9.1.1.1. schools and businesses partnered together to ensure good graduates were being produced

9.1.2. School to work programs

9.1.2.1. schools provide relevant education allowing exploration of different carerers

9.1.2.2. vocational emphasis for non college bound students

9.2. School Finance reform

9.2.1. court rules more funding is needed to serve the children in poor school districts

9.2.2. state was required to implement a package of supplemental programs including preschools

9.2.3. gives potential to improve all low income and minority children

9.3. Full Service and Community schools

9.3.1. develop a plan to educate the whole community

9.3.2. focus on meeting students' and their families complete needs

9.3.3. schools serve as community centers that extend hours to provide services

9.3.4. designed to improve at risk neighborhoods and prevent problems