Ed 302 Foundations

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Ed 302 Foundations by Mind Map: Ed 302 Foundations

1. Chapter 4: Sociological Perspectives

1.1. What is Sociology? Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

1.2. The Societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

1.2.1. 1. The Institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media. 2. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals. 3. The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

1.3. Highly Effective Schools which include; strong leadership,

1.3.1. 1. A safe and orderly environment,

1.3.2. 2. High expectations that all can learn,

1.3.3. 3. Continual review of student progress,

1.3.4. 4. And a clear mission.

1.4. 1. Define the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

1.4.1. The first theoretical perspective is functional. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Education creates the moral unity for social cohesion and harmony. Conflict is a breakdown of shred values.

1.4.2. The second perspective is conflict. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Conflict means that schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement.

1.4.3. The third theoretical perspective is interactional. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

1.5. The Societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

1.6. 2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book (there are 10 between pages 121-128).

1.6.1. 1. Teacher Behavior p.124 Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

1.6.2. 2. Education and Inequality p.125 American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth. Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools?

1.6.3. 3. Knowledge and Attitudes p. 121 The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. Differences between schools is not a significant impact. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement.

1.6.4. 4. Inside the Schools p. 123 Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs. Not all students study the same curriculum Curriculum determines who goes to college. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

1.6.5. 5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation p. 125 Rebellious students and violence in schools Nerds, coolness and athletes Four major types of college students includes; Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

1.7. Current Educational Crisis: The Current Educational Crisis p. 128:

1.8. One third of children are at-risk of failing.

1.9. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty.

1.10. Fifteen million are reared by single mothers.

1.11. How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage?

2. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

2.1. Philosophical Approach in Education

2.1.1. Selecting knowledge for the classroom

2.1.2. Ordering their classroom

2.1.3. Interacting with students, peers , parents and administrators

2.1.4. Selecting values for their classroom.

2.2. Phiosophical Approach Aids Teachers in Understanding:

2.2.1. Who they are and

2.2.2. Why they do what they do.

2.3. 3 Types of Philosophies

2.3.1. Idealism (Socrates and Plato) Role of the teacher; a role model in the classroom To provoke thought To bring out what is already in their mind Methods of Instruction: Discussion Questioning Lecture on material not presented in text

2.3.2. Realism The material world is real It exist without anyone perceiving A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions. Goal: Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems. Role of Teacher: Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner Enable students to examine from an objective approach Methods of Instruction: Lecture Question and Answer Discussion

2.3.3. Pragmatism Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Goal: Provide students with the knowledge to improve society. Methods of Instruction: learn individually as well as in groups. Role of Teaher: facilitator of learning activities

3. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

3.1. U.S. Senators

3.1.1. Luther Strange

3.1.2. Richard Shelby

3.2. State Senators

3.2.1. Paul Bussman

3.2.2. Randall Shed

3.3. State Superintendent

3.3.1. Ed Richardson

3.4. Local Superintendent:

3.4.1. Shane Barnett

3.5. City Superintendent

3.5.1. Susan Patterson

3.6. Local Members of School Board

3.6.1. Cold Springs- Wayne Myrex

3.6.2. Fairview- Chris Carter

3.6.3. Good Hope- Jason Speegle

3.6.4. Hanceville- Kenny Brockman

3.6.5. Holly Pond- Heath Allbright

3.6.6. Vinemont- Mike Graves

3.6.7. West Point- Gene Sullins

3.7. House of Representatives

3.7.1. Robert Aderholt

3.8. U.S. Department of Education- Has very little power.

3.9. School Processes and Cultures

3.9.1. Schools are separate social organizations because;

3.9.2. They have definitive populations,

3.9.3. They have political structures.

3.9.4. They represent a multitude of social groups.

3.9.5. They are prevailed by the “we feeling”.

3.9.6. They have their own special culture.

3.10. Sumative evaluations are considered a pen and paper test, projects, homework assigned in class.

3.11. Formative evaluations are considered forming an educative opinion on the students. All your work combined to form an evaluation.

3.12. School Process and Cultures:

3.12.1. Changing a school;

3.12.2. Conflict is a necessary part of change.

3.12.3. New behaviors must be learned.

3.12.4. Team building must extend to all parts.

3.12.5. Process and content are interrelated.

3.13. School Processes and Cultures

3.13.1. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

3.13.2. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching.

3.13.3. Communities are in conflict with administration.

3.13.4. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline.

3.14. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.

4. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

4.1. Three Social Stratification Systems:

4.1.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion.

4.1.2. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth.

4.1.3. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

4.2. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

4.3. IDEA 1996- Individuals Individuals Education Act.

4.3.1. 2 sections: Section 504- physical incapacity. Special Education- learning disabilities, behavioral disorders.

4.4. Lee V. Macon

4.4.1. Child was put in special education class, but only had a behavioral disorder.

4.5. The Coleman Study of 1966

4.5.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools.

4.5.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.

4.6. The Coleman Study of 1982

4.6.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

4.6.2. Differences in schools do make a difference.

4.6.3. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

4.7. The Coleman Study of 2010

4.7.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. Therefore, schools do make a diference.

5. Educational Reform

6. Chapter 2: The Politics of Education

6.1. Perspectives

6.1.1. Conservative

6.1.2. Liberal

6.1.3. Radical

6.1.4. Neo-Liberal

6.2. Purposes of Schooling

6.2.1. Intellectual – cognitive skills in math, reading, science , history, language

6.2.2. Political – to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

6.2.3. Social – to help people be socialable, productive members of society

6.2.4. Economic – prepare students for their occupation

6.3. Purposes of Schooling/Education

6.3.1. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values.

6.3.2. What type of society do we wish to have?

6.3.3. What constitutes the “good life” and a “good person”?

6.4. Political Perspective

6.4.1. Competition is good.

6.4.2. Every person determines their outcome.

6.4.3. Every person is responsible for their outcome.

6.4.4. Economically free markets best serve people.

6.4.5. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success.

6.4.6. Individuals make society.

6.5. Political Perspective

6.5.1. Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check.

6.5.2. Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies.

6.5.3. Governments must address societal issues.

6.5.4. Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities.

6.5.5. Educational opportunities must be equal across the nation, states and communities.

6.6. Political Perspective

6.6.1. Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living.

6.6.2. Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems.

6.6.3. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation.

6.6.4. Issues must be address at the social class level not the individual.

6.7. Main Political Perspectives

6.7.1. Conservative

6.7.2. Liberal

6.7.3. Radical

6.7.4. Neo-Liberal The role of the school Explanations of unequal educational performance Definition of educational problems Educational policy and reform The American Dream

7. Chapter 10: Education Reform and School Improvement

7.1. Reform in Education: 1980's to 2012

7.1.1. Two waves of attack: The first was concerned with accountability and achievement. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

7.1.2. Federal Involvement in Educational Reform: No Child Left Behind Race To The Top

7.1.3. Approaches to Reform Neo Liberal Approach Societal And Community Approach

7.1.4. School Based Reforms: School Choice Charter Schools Tuition Vouchers Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private) Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

7.1.5. Teacher Education Programs More intellectual demands in education programs Attract and retain competent teachers Reorganize educational academic and professional development

7.1.6. 3 Major Reforms: Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms State Takeovers Pros and Cons School Finance Reforms Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education. Full Service Schools Repair and educate the community

8. Politics of Education

9. Chapter 3: History of U.S. Education

9.1. 1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education. One reform that has influenced the United States in a major way is the reform of public education.Public education was for public stability and social mobility. Horace Mann was known as the "Father of American Public Schools." He made education possible for more students than ever before. This reform is the most important to me personally, because I attnded public school all my life.

9.2. Law that Affected Education;

9.2.1. Civil Rights Act 1963.

9.2.2. Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896- separate but equal.

9.2.3. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954-

9.2.4. Lee v. Macon Board of Education- it provided for special education.

9.3. 2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education. I chose to discuss conservative school. A liberal school tends to be more focused up beliefs and politics.They are more strict with social behavior. Also the government has less of a role in social programs.

10. Chapter 7: Curriculum & Pedagogy

10.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

10.2. Social Influences

10.3. Political influences

10.4. Societies’ influences

10.5. Cultural influences

10.6. Special interests

10.7. Sociology of the Curriculum:

10.7.1. Society influences the curriculum

10.7.2. Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) What we teacher everyday.

10.7.3. Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight

10.7.4. Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

10.8. Sociology of the Curriculum:

10.8.1. Society influences the curriculum

10.8.2. Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) What we teacher everyday.

10.8.3. Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight

10.8.4. Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

11. Educational Inequality

12. Chapter 1: Limits and Promises of Education

12.1. Educational Problems

12.1.1. The Achievement Gaps Elementary Secondary Act 1965 Attempted to erase discrepancies in opportunities. NCLB re-established these efforts in 2001. Due to testing, teaching gaps have widened. Causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc.

12.1.2. Crisis in Urban Education Demographic Trends Social Stratification Socioeconomic/ Academic Achievement Inequalities in School Systems School Choice is an Issue

12.1.3. Decline in Literacy Basic Skills of Fundamentals Teaching to the Test Pass them on due to age and no place to go. Schools become over-crowded. Raising Academic Standards (for whom)

12.1.4. Assessment Issues Teaching to the Test Authentic/ True Assessments

12.2. The Four Elements of Foundations of Education

12.2.1. History of Education Our Purpose then: To read the Bible to save our souls( Old Deleuter Act 1642): Our Purpose Now: Transmit culture Prepare for a global economy Prepare for the workforce Become a productive citizen Become a social citizen Pursuit of happiness Pursuit of freedom Pursuit of knowledge Pursuit of life

12.2.2. Philosophy of Education Questions to ask yourself: How will you teach? What is in the curriculum? Who are you as a teacher ? Who are your students? What does your classroom look like? How will you assess students?

12.2.3. Politics of Education How democratic are our schools? Who is involved in the decision making? What determines our curriculum? What role does special interests groups have? Business Labor unions Colleges World events Religion

12.2.4. Sociology of Education Are schools a reflection of our society/community? How does the impact of social expectations drive decision making socially? Are schools perpetuating the social class/community it serves?

12.3. Foundations of Your Personal Education

12.3.1. Questions to ask yourself:

12.3.2. Why am I a teacher?

12.3.3. What kind of influence will I be?

12.3.4. What values do I want my students to have as a result of my influence?

12.3.5. What do I want to accomplish in my lifetime?

13. Chapter 9: Explanations of Inequality

13.1. Factors that influence student success:

13.1.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

13.1.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

13.2. School Centered Explanations:

13.2.1. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

13.2.2. Curriculum and Pedagogic

13.2.3. School Financing

13.2.4. Effective Schools

13.3. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

13.3.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

13.3.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

13.3.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.