My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. Four purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual Purpose- Teaches basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.

1.1.2. Political Purpose-helps teach students political order (patriotism).

1.1.3. Social Purpose-Solves social problems and ensures social cohesion.

1.1.4. Economic Purpose- Prepares students for occupational roles.

1.2. The role of the school

1.2.1. Directly concerned with the purposes, aims, and functions of education in society.

1.3. Explanations of unequal performance

1.3.1. Schooling has not provided a reduction in inequality of results. The liberal perspective argues that students begin school with different life chances that gives them more advantages than others.

1.4. Definition of educational probelms

1.4.1. The decline of standards is one of the biggest educational problems. The conservatives also argue that the school watered down the curriculum which weakened the school.

2. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

2.1. The reform movement that I think has had the most influence on education would be Andrew Jackson becoming president and allowing all men excluding slaves to vote.

2.2. The historical interpretation that I chose would be the democratic-liberal school. They believed that the history of education involved the progressive evolution that provided equality to all students.

3. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

3.1. Functionalism

3.1.1. This theory stresses the interdependence of the social system. Functionalist view society as a machine that works with another part to produce dynamic energy.

3.2. Conflict Theory

3.2.1. Conflict sociologists do not see the relationship between society and school as straightforward. They believe that social order is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups.

3.3. Interactionalism

3.3.1. These theories are abstract and emphasize structure at a level of analysis.

3.4. 5 effects of schooling on students

3.4.1. Knowledge and Attitude- Sociologist believe that this is a big part that influences young peoples lives. The more knowledge that students have indicates the more likely they are to read newspapers, books, and magazines to take part in politics.

3.4.2. Employment- Graduating from college can lead to better job opportunities. Larger organizations higher people with high levels of education.

3.4.3. Gender- Schools reproduce inequalities through gender discrimination. Men are paid more than women for the same work. Girls start school ahead of boys in the cognitive and social aspect but finish with lower self esteem.

3.4.4. Tracking- There is compelling evidence that school tracking has a big impact on student mobility. Tracking is the placement of students in curricular programs based on their abilities.

3.4.5. Teacher Behavior- Teacher set standards for students and influence their self esteem. They have a huge impact on student learning.

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Pragmatism-a philosophy that encouraged people to processes that work together to achieve their desired outcome. They are action oriented.

4.1.1. Generic notions- enabled them to work together in a democratic society.

4.1.2. Goal of education-was to prepare students for life in a democratic society.

4.1.3. Role of teacher-was to be the facilitator. The teacher is there to encourage and offer suggestions to the student.

4.1.4. The method of instruction-also known as the problem solving method. Dewey said that students learn by themselves and in groups.

4.1.5. Curriculum-Progressive schools use the method of Dewey's notion of a core curriculum. These educators are not wedded to a certain curriculum. They change as the social order changes.

5. Schools as Organization Chapter 6

5.1. Major Stakeholders

5.1.1. Federal Alabama Senators- Richard Shelby and Luther Strange

5.1.2. Federal House of Representatives- Robert Aderholt

5.1.3. State Senator- Greg Reed

5.1.4. State House of Representatives-Connie Rowe

5.1.5. State Superintendent- Michael Sentance

5.1.6. Representative on State School Board- Ella B. Bell

5.1.7. Local Superintendent- Darryl Aikerson

5.1.8. Members on Local School Board-Fred Williams, Mark Mcllwain, Troy Youngblood, Darryl Aikerson, Betsy Gardiner, Buddy Whitlock

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. School processes- include the requirements that the school system must follow. This includes content for classrooms, the curriculum, and standards and objectives.

5.2.2. School Cultures- this includes the school environment. Part of the school culture would include how the school sets a schedule for the year.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. Developmentalist curriculum- This curriculum follows the needs of the students rather than the needs of society. Developmental curriculum focused on the needs of the child which stressed flexibility in the curriculum. It created real life experiences as to what was going on in the child's life which made it more real for the student.

6.2. Mimetic Tradition- This tradition is what most people think today's school system is all about. It is knowledge presented to the learner rather than the student discovering it out by themselves. There are five steps in this method which includes: Test, Present, Perform/Evaluate, Reward/Fix, Enter Remedial Loop, and Advance.

6.3. Transformative Tradition- This tradition describes what the teacher should be able to accomplish. It focuses more on transforming the students character, morals, and virtue. The three different forms of transformative includes: Personal Modeling, "Soft" and Use of Narrative.

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Students in different social classes have different educational experiences. Students who come from wealthier families are more likely to succeed because the longer the student is in school the more financial support they will need. Upper class families have higher expectations for their children to finish school where as the working class has lower expectations. It is also more likely for upper class children to speak English which is a big asset for them.

7.2. Race- Even in recent years the students race greatly impacts how much education he or she will receive. African-American and Hispanic students are more likely to drop out than white students. White students have an advantage over other students because they read at a higher level. Minority students also have lower SAT scores.

7.3. Gender- Women are more likely to be better students than men, but recent studies have shown that women are less likely to attain the same level of education. Females outscore males in reading and writing while males outscore females in mathematics. Men are more likely to score higher on the SAT's, but women are more likely to attend college.

7.4. 2 Coleman Responses

7.4.1. Geoffrey Borman and Maritza Dowling applied tools to evaluate education data in the same way that Coleman did. Their studies confirmed Coleman's original ideas from 1982. Their study found that where a student goes to school is based completely on the students race and background. They argued that race had everything to do with the students success.

7.4.2. Ron Edmonds and Scholars of Harvard University conducted a study to find the characteristics that made schools successful. He argued that every student should be able to learn, and the differences in schools played a big impact in if and how they would learn. He believed that where the student went to school had little effect on the students success.

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. One cultural difference is that African American students are suggested to deny their own culture identity. They are expected to accept the dominant culture of the school.

8.2. Another cultural difference is that African American children don't do well in school because they adapt to the oppressed position in the class. It is believed that parents socialize their children to deal with the life chances rather than teach them how to deal with it.

8.3. School centered explanations for educational inequality

8.3.1. #1- School financing- Public schools are financed from local, state, and public revenues. Most of the funds come from state and local taxes though. The Wealthy communities are able to provide more for their students, therefore creating a better education.

8.3.2. #2-Effective School Research- This inequality says that if the student differences are more important than the school differences than the teachers cannot be blamed for the results. It is also believed that if the effects are not significant than the teachers cannot do a lot to make a positive impact.

8.3.3. #3-Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- This inequality looks at why students who attend schools in higher socioeconomic communities achieve more in schools. Most people believe that it is because these schools have school climates that conduct positive achievement .

8.3.4. #4-Curriculum and Ability Grouping- Students performing differently in the same school systems suggest that there could be different outcomes affecting this. The lower tracks in the school system are more likely to have teacher directed practices.

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. School to work programs- This act was signed in 1994 by Bill Clinton. This was first set in place to help student who were not college bound learn the necessary skills to be successful in the employment world. Each of these work programs had to provide three core elements: school based learning, work based learning, and connecting activities.

9.2. Charter Schools- These schools are public schools that don't have to abide by most of the regulations that traditional public schools do. Charter schools are paid for with tax dollars and they are free to students in the school district. Charter schools provide a more effective alternative for low income children.

9.3. Mayoral Control of Urban Districts- This reform is believed to be more effective. This reform is believed to eliminate corruption in the school systems while also increasing student achievement.

9.4. School Finance Reform- In1990 the court ruled that there was more funding needed to serve the children to their fullest potential. It also ruled that extra funding would be given to poorer school districts to help with additional programs.