My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. The four purposes of education are: intellectual, political, social, and economic.

1.2. Choose and describe a perspective for each of the following: 1) the role of the school is directly concerned with the aims, purposes, and functions of education in a society; 2) unequal performance to a conservative is that the individual failed, to a liberal that some groups have significantly more advantages than other groups, and to a radical the educational failure is caused by the economic system; and 3) educational problems to a conservative are caused by the decline of standards, cultural literacy, values, and authority; to a liberal the problems are caused by the limited life chances of some groups, too much emphasis on discipline and authority, differences in socioeconomic groups, and the lack of diverse culture curriculum; to a radical the problems are caused by inequality of both opportunity and results.

2. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

2.1. 1. The reform movement that I think has had the most influence on education was The Rise of the Common School. Led by Horace Mann, he lead the struggle for free education and the the common school established, school board and "normal school" or teacher training school. All three are still with us, though the names may have changed and there has been subsequent "tweaks" they are all intact.

2.2. 2. The Democratic-Liberal School historical interpretation of U.S. Education that the history of education in the US involves the evolution of a flawed system attempting to provide equal educational opportunities for an ever growing population. They see that more students from more diverse population are attending school for longer periods of time and accomplishing many varied goals from intellectual to economic. They hold equality and excellence as ideal standards, with each needing to improve without sacrificing the other.

3. Sociology of Education Chapter 4

3.1. 1. Functionalism is based on collective agreement, conflict theory is based on the dominance of the ruling class over all others, and interactionalism examines the commonplace everyday actions of education to provide meaningful ideas about the act of educating.

3.2. 2. Knowledge and attitudes, differences in academic programs and policies do make a difference (Edmonds), the founder of the “effective schools movement” and overall, more years of schooling lead to greater achievement. Employment, most students believe that education will lead to greater employment opportunities. Education and mobility is our American ethos, that occupational and social mobility begin with schooling and the American belief that education is the great equalizer. Teacher behavior impacts student learning and behaviors. Gender a form of social stratification that discriminates between the genders and is rooted in the values and organizational structures of society.

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Pragmatism. Generic Notions: A better society through education; student-centered learning; and courses of study that progressed with the development of the student. Key Researchers: George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey. Goal of Education: Preparation for life in a democratic society. Role of Teacher: Facilitator. Method of Instruction: Problem-solving or inquiry method. Curriculum: Expanding environments.

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. Identify and describe the elements of change within 1. School processes: Change is difficult because schools are deeply political and bureaucratic; 2. School cultures: Change is difficult because it is not an easy task for teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and students to arrive at consensus.

5.2. Major stakeholders in my district: State level - Senators Richard Shelby and Luther Strange and Representative Mo Brooks local level - Senator Bill Holtzclaw and Representative Mike Ball, state superintendent Ed Richardson, representative on state school board Mary Scott Hunter, local superintendent Robby Parker, and Ranae Bartlett, Tim Holtcamp, Connie Cox Spears, David Hergenroeder, and Luis Javier Ferrer.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist). Developmentalist curriculum, because it is related to the needs and interests of the student. It is flexible and student-centered, making education come alive for the student. In this curriculum, the teacher is a facilitator of student growth.

6.2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching. 1. Mimetic. This tradition states that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to the students. This tradition rests on the didactic method of lecture or presentation (the sage on the stage). 2. Transformative. This tradition states that the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way. This tradition rests on the dialectical method, which involves questioning.

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes. Class. Education is expensive, which favors wealthier families. Upper and middle-class families expect their children to finish school whereas working class and underclass families have lower expectations. Culturally, schools represent the values of the middle and upper classes. Middle and upper-class families have more books in the home and speak “standard” English which may lead to higher academic achievement. Race. The race of a student has a direct impact on how much education they receive, but it is hard to separate class from the race. Gender. Gender inequalities in education have been greatly reduced in the past 20 years. There is still discrimination against women occupationally and socially.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982? (There are other responses but you focus ONLY on the two from 1982.) Round Two. There is evidence that Catholic and private schools “do it better,” particularly for low-income students. The differences are statistically significant but not in terms of learning. It is argued that Catholic schools are becoming elitists and may no longer serve low-income students. Round Three. The racial and socioeconomic makeup of the school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual’s race and class. Education reform must eliminate the segregation in the education system and end the tracking systems and biases that favor white and middle-class students.

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory 1. African -American children do less well in school because they adapted to being second-class citizens 2. Working-class and nonwhite students resist /reject the white middle-class culture of academic success.

8.2. Describe at least four school-centered explanations for educational inequality. 1. School financing. More affluent communities can provide more per pupil spending than less affluent communities since most of funding comes from property taxes. 2. Effective school. Rigorous academic curriculum and higher academic expectations lead to better levels of academic achievement. 3. Between school differences: Curriculum and Pedagogy. Class based differences in school climates and academic performance. Working-class schools are more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-centered pedagogic practices, middle-class schools are less authoritarian and student-centered pedagogic practices, and upper-class schools have authoritarian pedagogic practices and a classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum. 4. Within-school differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping. At the secondary school level, students are divided by both ability and curriculum. Lower tracks are more likely to have didactic method of teaching. Teacher directed practices at the higher tracks are more likely to follow the dialectic method of student-centered practices. Track placement is associated with student race and social characteristics, with working-class and nonwhite students more likely to be assigned to lower tracks.

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality) 1. School-to-work programs. To prepare youth for high-wage, high-skill careers in today’s and tomorrow’s global economy. Elements include: school-based learning, work-based learning, and connecting activities. To properly work, students must be given an adequate career path. 2. Teacher quality. NCLB requires schools have highly qualified teachers in the classroom. In urban schools, some teachers are out-of-field teachers. They are qualified in one area but teach in another area. Must address school organizational issues to succeed.

9.2. Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms. 1. School finance reform. Extra funding for disadvantaged schools to provide additional programs to level out the playing field. Factors outside of the school must be addressed for this to succeed. 2. Community schools. Educate the whole community instead of just the child. Schools become community centers, with extended hours and provide several services. There is no research that shows that this improves student achievement.