Teaching, Learning and Development (5015Q) Mind Map by: Mark Haddad

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Teaching, Learning and Development (5015Q) Mind Map by: Mark Haddad by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development (5015Q) Mind Map by: Mark Haddad

1. Week 6: te September: Knowing that the Students Know

1.1. Backward Design

1.1.1. 1. Start with specific learning objective

1.1.2. 2. How will the teacher determine if students have learned or not?

1.1.3. 3. What will be taught?

1.1.4. 4. How will it be taught?

1.2. Blooms Taxonomy: hierarchy of cognitive learning objectives

1.2.1. Level 1: Knowledge- Involves remembering facts

1.2.2. Level 2: Comprehension- involves understanding information

1.2.3. Level 3: Application- the ability to solve problems through the use of information

1.2.4. Level 4: Analysis- Breaking up concepts and determining connections

1.2.5. Level 5: Synthesis- Creating new ideas from existing ideas

1.2.6. Level 6: Evaluation- Judging something on the basis of value

1.3. Understanding by Design

1.3.1. Assess for understanding and transfer - what is worth understanding?

1.3.2. Want students to understand larger transferable concepts and processes in subjects (big picture)

1.3.3. Just because a student knows something, doesn’t mean they understand it

1.4. How People Learn (HPL)

1.4.1. Learner centered: students construct new knowledge by building on prior experience and knowledge

1.4.2. Knowledge centered: Involves helping students make connections from prior knowledge

1.4.3. Assessment centered: Emphasis on concepts rather than memorizing facts

1.4.4. Community centered: Creating a learning environment where everyone is respected and ideas are appreciated and welcomed

2. Week 7: Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

2.1. Intelligence: groups of intellectual behaviours that impact how well students learn

2.1.1. Fluid intelligence: general reasoning

2.1.2. Crystallized intelligence: comprehension and language development

2.1.3. General memory and learning: memory span

2.1.4. Broad visual perception: visualization

2.1.5. Broad auditory perception: hearing and speech threshold factors

2.1.6. Broad retrieval capacity: creativity

2.1.7. Broad cognitive speediness: test taking rate

2.1.8. Processing speed: reaction time

2.2. Intelligence is important for teachers to understand as the ability of a student determines our approach

2.3. Genetic makeup sets the limits of an individuals intellect and the environment will determine the students realized potential

2.4. Special Education

2.4.1. High-incidence exceptionalities

2.4.2. Low-incidence exceptionalities

2.4.3. Inclusion: All students with exceptionalities should be taught in regular classes

2.4.4. Individualized education programs (IEP): outlines individualized goals of a student, the services they will receive, strategies used, and the placement that will be provided

2.5. Differentiated learning: looks to accommodate for diverse learning needs

2.6. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

2.6.1. A UDL approach ensures that lessons are tailored to draw on strengths and meet the needs of every student

2.6.2. Allocation of time to activities should be flexible so all students are provided with learning experiences

2.6.3. Teachers must avoid complexity in lessons and minimize information that may be distracting to students

3. Week 8: Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

3.1. Diverse Learners

3.1.1. Academic achievement of students may increase if teachers take social, cultural and language backgrounds of students into account when planning and implementing instruction

3.1.2. Teachers must be aware of discrepencies in educational opportunties in the school they teach

3.1.3. Teachers must become acquainted with the values and norms within the community they are teaching

3.2. Effects of parenting style on student success

3.2.1. Authoritarian parenting

3.2.2. Permissive parenting

3.2.3. Authoritative parenting

3.3. Socio-economic Status (SES): indicates a persons social class which is based on factors such as education, occupation, and income

3.4. Stereotype threat: fear that your behaviour may confirm a stereotype (negative) about the group you are associated with

3.5. The primary focus of teachers is to understand a students identity and how it is formed through associations with different groups

3.6. 3 different views of multicultural education

3.6.1. 1. Diversity should be valued above everything and no culture should be perceived as superior

3.6.2. 2. The second view involves the belief that learning how to survive in the world is more important than learning about diversity

3.6.3. 3. The third approach is a blend of the first two approaches.

3.7. Five dimensions of multicultural education suggested by Banks (2001)

3.7.1. Content integration

3.7.2. Knowledge construction

3.7.3. Equity pedagogy

3.7.4. Empowering social structure and school culture

3.7.5. Reduction of prejudice

4. Week 9: End of the school year

4.1. Components of Standardized Tests

4.1.1. 1. Contains identical questions for all students taking the test

4.1.2. 2. All individuals complete the test under the same conditions and time constraints

4.1.3. 3. Students are marked/scored in a systematic way

4.2. Criterion-referenced tests: a students mark reflects how they did based on standards

4.3. Norm-referenced tests: a students mark reflects how well they did compared to other students

4.4. The purpose of standardized tests

4.4.1. 1. Determine how a student performs in the essential aspects of schooling

4.4.2. 2. To monitor trends of acheivement

4.4.3. 3. To modify methods of instruction to encourage student progress

4.4.4. 4. Evaluation of programs of education

4.4.5. 5. To hold teachers, districts, and schools accountable

4.5. As teachers, we must prepare students for tests through good teaching. We must also have a positive attitude about standardized tests.

4.6. 5 requirements of standardized tests to improve learning and teaching:

4.6.1. 1. Standardized tests must address goals of the curriculum

4.6.2. 2. Teachers must be able to teach these goals

4.6.3. 3. The knowledge assessed should be described clearly

4.6.4. 4. The test should guide instruction

4.6.5. 5. Assessment should be non-intrusive

4.7. How can we prepare students for tests?

4.7.1. We must teach students to: read what they are being asked carefully

4.7.2. Start with the easy questions

4.7.3. Use time effectively for each section

4.7.4. Double-check answers

5. When teachers created a learning environment of respect, I felt inclined to contribute and share my ideas to the class

6. It is very important to understand the socio-economic status of students and accommodate for the problems they may face because of factors such as income for example

7. Week 1: Planning for the upcoming school year

7.1. Reflective Practice defines a professional teacher who analyzes and reflects on their practice. This involves assessing the effects of their teaching and trying to make it more effective. I believe this is a very important aspect of teaching because we need to constantly ask ourselves how we can make our teaching more engaging and thus effective.

7.2. The 4 commonplaces of Education include: the teacher, the student, the curriculum, and the classroom. These commonplaces are all linked and result in a more engaging experience.

7.3. Foundational topics of educational psychology

7.3.1. 1. Learning and Cognition

7.3.2. 2. Development

7.3.3. 3. Social and cultural influences

7.3.4. 4. Motivation

7.3.5. 5. Classroom and behaviour management

7.3.6. 6. Differences among individuals

7.3.7. 7. Assessment and evaluation

7.3.8. 8. Teaching and instruction

7.3.9. 9. Psychological foundations of the curriculum

7.4. Approaches to research

7.4.1. Quantitative research: involves the use of numerical data

7.4.2. Qualitative research: involves opinions and reasoning

7.5. Cirricular planning

7.5.1. Involves grouping lessons based on similar themes and obtaining knowledge about students through various documents

7.6. Constructivism: involves development of cognitive structures in students and construction of their knowledge

7.7. Twelve generic guidelines

7.7.1. 1. Create a supportive classroom structure

7.7.2. 2. Provide opportunities for students to learn

7.7.3. 3. Ensure lessons address curricular goals

7.7.4. 4. Clarify outcomes

7.7.5. 5. Explain and develop content

7.7.6. 6. Facilitate meaningful discourse

7.7.7. 7. Include activities that help students practice

7.7.8. 8. Assist students so they engage productively

7.7.9. 9. Teach strategies that are effective

7.7.10. 10. Include group work

7.7.11. 11. Utilize formal and informal assessment

7.7.12. 12. Establish expectations

8. Week 2: Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

8.1. Development involves physical, social, and cognitive changes that arise in children

8.2. Five developmental principles

8.2.1. Progresses in an orderly manner

8.2.2. Not constant (rapid or slow growth)

8.2.3. Qualitative and quantitative changes are involved

8.2.4. Development differs among children in the same age group or grade

8.2.5. Influenced by genetics and environment

8.3. Teachers should not assume adolescents will set rules for their own behaviour.

8.4. Executive cognitive functioning: occurs when students organize and reflect on thoughts to process outcomes more efficiently.

8.5. Curiosity promotes learning through a constant search for understanding. A teacher must present material in an interesting way to arouse a students curiosity.

8.6. 2 basic learning instincts:

8.6.1. Drive to organize thoughts and behaviours

8.6.2. Drive to adjust a students environment

8.7. Schemes: the way that students act or think about certain situations

8.8. Schemas: informs an individual on what they expect from specific experiences and situations

8.9. Zone of proximal development; tasks that a child cannot do by themselves, but can with help from others.

8.10. Scaffolding: a teaching process dynamic in nature. Focuses on support based on the students' specific needs. For example, students who are quick to learn something may receive less assistance.

8.11. Self-efficacy: a students belief in their ability to accomplish something successfully. This is very important to understand as a teacher because this can affect how a student approaches their goals.

8.12. Theory of mind: involves understanding, and accepting other peoples' beliefs. This is very important as a teacher because we must appreciate the emotions and views of our students.

8.13. Ecological theory: the belief that environments we encounter influences a persons behavior

8.14. Growth Mindset: Involves the idea that intelligence is something that can be developed over time. The growth mindset encourages a student to learn and keep improving. This mindset is essential to effective life long learning.

9. Week 3: Views of Learning - Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

9.1. Behavioural Approach

9.1.1. Teachers must construct environments that satisfy 3 needs to motivate students 1. Teachers must show that they believe in students and students must feel connected and as if they belong 2. To increase positive behaviours, students must take ownership and responsibility of their actions 3. Students must feel competent and successful

9.1.2. Teachers can engage in different behaviours that will diminish problematic behaviour Provide positive feedback Respond supportively to students Ask questions that students can easily answer Use time efficiently

9.1.3. Teachers must look at behaviors more progressively to have a more compassionate understanding of bad behavior. Moreover, if a student is exhibiting troubled behavior, then the teacher must look to solve problems that the student has, which makes them exhibit such behaviour

9.1.4. Treating everyone the same does not translate to good treatment, because they are not exactly the same in terms of personality and behaviour

9.1.5. Based on the idea that behavior can be modified or prevented based on previous events and consequences of a specific behaviour

9.1.6. Strategies to nurture these needs: Developing realistic expectations and goals (behavioural and learning) Provide opportunities for students to contribute to the welfare of others to reinforce responsibility Allow students to make choices and solve problems Help students to deal with failure

9.2. Constructivist approach: Involves the idea that students construct their understandings through prior knowledge and experiences

9.3. Cognitive approach: involves the belief that how an individual thinks affects how that person behaves and how they feel.

10. Week 4: First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

10.1. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM): an approach that incorporates current research principles to classroom management

10.1.1. Five global principles of effective classroom management 1. Develop a relationship with and among students of care and support 2. Optimize student learning through effective instruction 3. Encourage student engagement through group management methods 4. Promotion of student social skills and self-regulation 5. Assist students who display problematic behaviour with appropriate intervention

10.1.2. Three fundamental understandings that guides teacher action during the implementation of DCM 1. Teachers must encourage and support desired behaviour through structures and atmosphere 2. Collaboratively establish rules and include explicit rules and routines 3. Student-regulated behaviour

10.2. Classroom Management: actions that the teacher undertakes to create an environment that enhances learning and development of social skills

10.3. The Myth of the Average: the idea that all students have very different strengths and weaknesses.

10.3.1. Designing on the average destroys talent. This is because it makes weakness hard to see. Since these weaknesses are hard to see, teachers cannot nurture a students' weaknesses.

10.3.2. Learning environments that are designed for the average student are designed for no one. Also, they don't nurture the individual potential of students. To nurture students' potential, teachers can use technology to create flexible learning environments

11. Week 5: Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

11.1. Universal Instructional Design: instructional system that helps teachers to design accessible teaching activities and environments

11.1.1. 7 Principles of Universal Instructional Design 1. Creating a welcoming environment that focuses on success 2. Determine important academic components and behavioural outcomes that are preferred 3. Be clear to students about expectations for learning and give students feedback about progress 4. Implement various instructional methods 5. Provide various methods of assessment. This is very important as some assessment may not be accurate for some students 6. Enhance learning through technology 7. Initiate discourses about learning and behavioural expectations

11.2. Cognitive Strategy: thinking process that promotes understanding and the retention of knowledge which is essential to being a 'good thinker'

11.3. Metacognition: thinking about thinking

11.4. Select-Organize-Integrate (information-processing model): students must engage in 3 cognitive processes to learn meaningfully

11.4.1. 1. Selection of relevant information

11.4.2. 2. Organize the information selected

11.4.3. 3. integrate the information with the use of prior knowledge

11.4.4. Prevents teachers from feeling pressured to design lessons about things that are fun (sports, music etc)

11.4.5. This model makes materials cognitively stimulating even if the lessons are not about interesting things

11.5. How to motivate students

11.5.1. Make tasks appeal to a wide range of interests

11.5.2. Teach learning and problem-solving strategies

11.5.3. Adjust instructional support to suit the needs of individual students

11.5.4. Challenge students to demonstrate their abilities and understandings

11.5.5. Encourage engagement

11.5.6. Encourage discussion

11.5.7. Ask for student opinion on topics

11.5.8. Withhold judgement of a students perspective

11.6. Intrinsic motivation and Extrinsic motivation

11.6.1. Intrinsic motivation: motivation to engage even when you don't actually have to

11.6.2. Extrinsic motivation: What makes people do what they don't want to do

11.7. Direct Instruction (DI): involves teaching small amounts of information while providing practice which helps students to master facts and skills

11.7.1. Emphasis on clear learning objectives that are presented with purpose

11.7.2. Involves teaching through lecture or demonstration and helping students to solve problems

11.8. Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-based learning

11.8.1. Involves students helping teachers to design tasks, completing tasks collaboratively, and reflecting on experiences of learning

11.9. Zoe Branigan-pipe

11.9.1. Student-centered learning

11.9.2. Technology to accommodate for all types of students

12. A supportive classroom structure was very important in my elementary and high school experiences as this motivated me to do my best.

13. Scaffolding was very helpful for me in high school because when I had trouble understanding certain concepts or problems, my teacher would give me the extra help I needed to succeed

14. When teachers showed that they believed in me, I was much more motivated to do better in the class. I think this is a very important aspect in a student-teacher relationship and is essential in promoting learning

15. Teacher feedback was very important to me in elementary and high school. Moreover, when a teacher provides positive feedback, I feel a sense of accomplishment. When a teacher provides negative feedback and is clear on what I did wrong, this helps me to ensure I don't make the same mistake again.