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AP Physics

Due to formatting issues, not all formulae will properly appear on the map. The adjusted format should still be comprehensible; the correct format will be displayed on the Note. Created by: FM Yoon-Jae "Yoonbacca" Kim & GM Jay "TuSyniikal" Shapiro Contributors: Joseph Boyle, James Walker, Greg Jacobs, Joshua Schulman, Shannon Campbell, Justin Nauman, CollegeBoard, Physics Classroom, Prentice-Hall and Wikipedia. Special Thanks To: Justin "Nom Nom" Nauman for his acceleration of blocks connected by pulley equation, and to Mrs. Shannon "C-Dawg" Campbell for being the best Physics teacher on the face of the Earth. Campbell AP Physics B 2010-2011 "Scientia potentia est."

2-D Kinematics

Formulae

y-direction, y = yo + vot +½at²

x-direction, x = xo + vot, NO ACCELERATION

Units

Acceleration = g = 9.8m/s²

Definitions

2-D Motion, motion in two direction

Projectile Motion, motion with constant velocity in one direction and constant acceleration in another, Parabolic path

Graphs

Position(x) vs. Time(t), Parabolic path, Midpoint = 0m/s

Velocity(v) vs. Time(t), Constant(downward) slope

Acceleration(a) vs. Time(t), Linear

1-D Kinematics

Formulae

v = vₒ +a∆t

x = xₒ + vt +½at²

v² = vₒ² +2a∆x

Definitions

Kinematics, the motion of an object

Vector, Magnitude + direction

Scalar, Magnitude

Graphs

Position(x) vs. Time(t), Slope(m)=velocity(v)

Velocity(v) vs. Time(t), Slope(m)=acceleration(a)

Acceleration(a) vs. Time(t)

Units

Distance = d

Displacement = ∆x

Velocity = v

Acceleration = a

Time = t

Newton's Laws of Motion

The Laws

Newton's 1st Law, ∑F= 0

Newton's 2nd Law, ∑F=ma

Newton's 3rd Law, Equal but Opposite

Concepts

Weight, w = mg

Free Body Diagram, Normal Force, Perpendicular to surface object is on, Weight, Always STRAIGHT down., Tension, Vertical Tension, Horizontal Tension

Friction

F = μN

μ = coefficient of friction, static, Applies when the object is not in motion, kinetic, Applies when the object is in motion

Justinian Acceleration Conjecture

±a=[|W1(sin θ1 – μk cos θ1)±W2(sin θ2 – μk cos θ2)|]/(m1+m2)

Energy

Work and Kinetic Energy

Formulae, Kinetic Energy, K = ½mv², Work, W = F∆dcosθ, Power, P = W/t = ∆E/t, Power, P = Fvcosθ, Spring Force, F = -k∆x

Units, Energy = E, Kinetic = K, Potential = U, Work = W, Spring Constant = k

Concepts, Pendulums, Independent from mass, Springs

Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy

Formulae, Gravitational Potential Energy, U = mgh, Potential Energy of a Spring, U = ½kx², Gravitational Potential Energy, U = -GMm/r

Units, Gravitational Constant = G, U = Potential Energy

Law of Conservation of Energy

p = mv

J = m∆v = F∆t

F = m∆v/∆t

Momentum = p

Circular Motion and Gravitation

Centripetal Acceleration

Centripetal acceleration can also be found using the equation: AC=4πr2/T2

AC=V2/R

Tangential Velocity

As the name implies, the velocity vector is always tangent to the object's path of motion.

V=2πr/T

Period

Time required for an object to complete one revolution.

T=1/f

Frequency

Number of revolutions per second.

f=1/T

FC=mv2/r

FG=Gmm/r2

V=(Gm/r)^0.5

Fluids

Flowing Formulae

Absolute Pressure, P=Po + ρgh

Torricelli's Thereom, v=(2gh)^0.5

Bernoulli's Equation, P+1/2ρv^2+ρgh=Constant

Volume Flow Rate, R=vA

Fluid Velocity, A1v1=A2v2

Static Formulae

Density, ρ=m/V

Pressure, P=F/A

Fluid Pressure, P=ρgh

Buoyant Force, F=ρgV

Specifc Gravity, SG=ρobj/ρwater

Waves/Vibrations

TS=2π(m/k)½

TP=2π(L/g)^½

v=fl

Energy of SHM Object

Simple Harmonic Motion

E= ½mv^2 + ½kx^2

v=[FT/(m/L)]^½

Sound

v=331 + 0.6T

β=10 log I/IO

Harmonic Frequency

Open/Open and Closed/ Closed, FN=nv/2L

Open/Closed, FN=v(2n-1)/4L

FB=F1-F2

Doppler Effect

NEEEEEEEeeewwww...

f=fo[(v+vo)/(v+vs)]

Constructive

Destructive

DV= VobDT

PV=nRT

P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

U=3nRT/2

Q=mcDT

DU= Q+W

e= W/QH

e= QH-QC/QH

e= 1-(TC/TH)

Fq= kQ1Q2/r^2

E=F/q

E= kQ/r^2

UE= qV

V=kQ/r

∆Vab= Wab/q

Vab= Ed cos θ

V=Ex, ∑V=kQ/r

WE= kQQ/r

W= q∆V

∆UE= qEx

Circuits

I= Q/t

is futile!

R= ρL/A

V= IR

P=IV=I^2R=V^2/R

Capacitance

Q=CV

Stored Energy, UC= ½QV= ½CV²= ½Q²/V

Resistors in Series

IT= I1=I2=…=In   VT= V1+V2+…+Vn   RT= R1+R2+…+Rn

Resistors in Parallel

IT= I1+I2+…+In VT= V1=V2=…=Vn 1/RT= 1/R1+1/R2+…+1/Rn

Capacitors in Series

QT= Q1=Q2=…=Qn VT= V1+V2+…+Vn

Capacitors in Parallel

VT= V1=V2=…=Vn QT= Q1+Q2+…+Qn CT= C1+C2+…+Cn

Kirchoff's Rules

Junction Rule, ∑I=0

Loop Rule, ∑V=0

Optics

Formulae

Speed of light, c = fλ

Index of refraction, n = c/v

Snell's Law, n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2

Critical angle, sinθc = n2/n1

Thin lens equation, 1/f = (1/di)+(1/do)

Magnification, M = hi/ho = -di/do

Focal length and radius of curvature, f = R/2

Diffraction, mλ = dsinθ

Diffraction small angle approx., xm = mλL/d

Concepts

Law of Reflection, θi = θr

Law of Refraction, n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2

Ray diagrams

Mirrors, Plane, Concave, do<f, do=f, 2f>do>f, do = 2f, do>2f, Convex

Lenses, Converging, do < f, do=f, 2f>do>f, do = 2f, do>2f, Diverging

Thin film interference

Units

f = focal point

Center of Curvature = 2f

Magnetism

FB=BA cos f

B= μoI/2πr

Force on Wire

The force in a current carrying wire in a magnetic field

F= LIB sin θ

Fq= qvB sin θ

Ion Path

Use this equation to find the radius of an ion's path in a mass spectrometer.

r=mv/qB

F/L= μoI1I2/2πd

Wire Rule

Field Rule

E= -N∆F/∆t

V=vLB sin θ

Modern Physics

Quantum

Formulae, Energy of a photon, E = hf, Photoelectric effect, Km = hf - φ, Momentum of a photon, p = h/λ, de Broglie wavelength, λ = h/p, Mass-energy equivalence, ∆E = (∆m)c², Momentum, p= (2mk)^1/2

Units, φ = work function, h = Planck's constant, fₒ = threshold frequency

Concepts, Photoelectric effect, Compton effect