Positive Results, DISEASE: Acute Pancreatitis, abdominal pain, weight loss, chills, nausea, weakness, clammy skin, fever, mild jaundice, fatty stools, During acute pancreatitis, the blood contains at least three times the normal amount of amylase and lipase, digestive enzymes formed in the pancreas. Changes may also occur in other body chemicals such as glucose, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate.
Positive Results, Disease: Diabetes, Type one diabetes: high glucose levels due to lack of insulin. Type two diabetes: body becomes resistant to insulin being produced., frequent urination, weakness/fatigue, unquenchable thirsth, tingling/numbess in feet and hands, weight loss, frequent bruises, cuts or infections
Insulin is secreted by beta cells which comprise 70% of the pancreas' hormone secreting cells., FUNCTION: * promotes the storage of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids * promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen by stimulating the liver cells to take glucose from the blood and convert it glycogen, while at the same time inhibit the production of the enzymes that break down glycogen (ultimately decreasing blood sugar levels) * inhibits the conversion of fats and proteins into glucose., REGULATION: insulin release is triggered by high blood glucose levels. It lowers blood sugar levels by binding to a cell surface receptor and accelerating glucose transport into the cell where glucose is converted into glycogen., TARGET CELLS: Almost all of the cells in the body are target cells for insulin, as the response to insulin is to transport glucose into the cells, ultimately decreasing the level of glucose in the blood. As blood sugar levels decrease, the secretion of insulin is inhibited, Insulin and Glucagon work as antagonistic hormones as they act on the liver causing it to convert glucose into glycogen when blood sugar levels are high (insulin), and transforming glycogen into glucose when the blood sugar levels are low (glucagon).
Glucagon is secreted by alpha cells which make up 22% of the pancreas' hormone secreting cells, FUNCTION: *stimulates mobilization of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, from storage into the blood. * stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose and fat and protein into intermediate metabolites that are eventually converted into glucose * make the liver release the glucose it has stored in its cells into the blood stream, increasing blood glucose., REGULATION:glucagon release is: * stimulated by low levels of glucose in the blood; * inhibited by high levels of glucose in the blood * inhibited by amylin., TARGET CELLS: mainly in the liver, where glycogen is stored. The reaction to glucagon is to break down glycogen into its monosaccharides, which are glucose.
Somatostatin is secreted by the gamma cells which make up only 8% of the pancreas' hormones secreting cells., FUNCTION: * Inhibit the release of growth hormone * Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone * regulate the rate at which food is absorbed from the large intestine, REGULATION: *Induced by low pH *released when there are high levels of blood glucose or amino acids
FUNCTION: The enzymes help break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and acids in the duodenum. They travel down the pancreatic duct into the bile duct in an inactive form, and become activated when they enter the duodenum.