My New Mind Map

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My New Mind Map by Mind Map: My New Mind Map

1. Geography and Agriculture

1.1. Shang/Zhou

1.1.1. 1) Qin Shi Huang crowned himself the first united China emperor, and the Zhou Dynasty was over.

1.1.2. 2) The Zhou people dammed a river to create a reservoir to irrigate the crops.

1.1.3. 3) Although the Shang Dynasty was not as advanced in irrigation as other civilizations of that time, there was sufficient growth that gave more leisure time and wealth to the people. As a result, their cities became more modernized.

1.1.4. 4) The Huang He River was essential in centralizing government. Without it, there would be no agriculture, which is the fundamental aspect of all ancient civilizations.

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1.2. Sumerians

1.2.1. 1) The Mesopotamians farmed the land between the Tigris and Euphrates River.

1.2.2. 2) The region in Mesopotamia posed challenges. It recieved little rain. Therefore, water levels in the Tigris and Euphrates depended on rainfall and snowmelt in distant mountains. Rivers would wash away crops and even villages without warning. Also, when the climate was too hot it would dry out their crops.

1.2.3. 3) Farmers in the northern area of Shang territory, near the Yellow River, grew mainly wheat and millet. Some farmers in the region south of the Yellow River grew rice, but this was not an especially common food at the time.

1.2.4. 4) Farmers in the northern area of Shang territory, near the Yellow River, grew mainly wheat and millet. Some farmers in the region south of the Yellow River grew rice, but this was not an especially common food at the time.

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2. Religion

2.1. Shang/Zhou

2.1.1. 1)The Zhou Dynasty moved from worshiping a supreme god to worshiping heaven.

2.1.2. 2) The Zhou believed that a flood or drought was a sign that Heaven was unhappy with the current ruler.

2.1.3. 3) During the Zhou Dynasty two important religions or philosophies emerged - Confucianism and Taoism.

2.1.4. 4) The Zhou invoked the 'Mandate of Heaven' which meant that emperors were granted their right to rule because of their ability to be fair and govern well.

2.2. Sumerians

2.2.1. 1) The Sumerians practiced polytheism which is the worship of many gods.They believed that gods controlled the world.

2.2.2. 2) The Sumerians also worked hard to please their god. They did this by building ziggurats and temples where priests and priestesses offered the gods food and drink, and held ceremonies.

2.2.3. 3) They believed that the gods were human like but at the same time they believed that the gods had enormous power and could bring rich harvests and raging floods.

2.2.4. 4) The city leaders had a duty to please the town's patron deity, not only for the good will of that god or goddess, but also for the good will of the other deities in the council of gods.

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3. Social Structure and Family

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. 1) Men held political power and made laws while women took care of home and children.

3.1.2. 2) At the top were the top kings, priests, and there principal agents. Next, were landowners and wealthy merchants.

3.1.3. 3) Below them was the majority of the Sumerians-artisans, farmers, and laborers. At the bottom was slaves, many whom had been captured in battle.

3.1.4. 4) Those farmers who failed to harvest enough to keep themselves in food and seed borrowed from those who had wealth in surplus. Those who borrowed hoped that their next harvest would give them the surplus they needed to repay their loan. But if the next harvest were also inadequate, to meet their obligations they might be forced to surrender their lands to the lender or to work for him.

3.2. Shang/ Zhou

3.2.1. 1) The Shang Dynasty was the first true civilization of China. They centralized government, built strong cities, and began the Chinese culture.

3.2.2. 2) Priests were able to influence the kings' decisions through their analyses of oracle bones. In a society driven by ancestor worship, priests held a significant job of communicating with predecessors and gods. The priests used many of the resources grown by farmers or created by potters and bronzeworkers.

3.2.3. 3) Slaves were often taken by the Shang during their wars with the nearby peoples. These slaves usually farmed the land but were, along with some peasants, required to participate in certain large building projects.

3.2.4. 4) In descending order, these were the shi (gentry scholars), the nong (peasant farmers), the gong (artisans and craftsmen), and the shang (merchants and traders). In some manner this system of social order was adopted throughout the Chinese cultural sphere.

4. Arts and Education

4.1. Sumerians

4.1.1. 1) Sumerian architecture includes the use of arches, ramps, and columns, all visible on the ziggurats.

4.1.2. 2) Some of Sumer's most famous works of art are its cylinder seals, small stone cylinders engraved all around with detailed designs.

4.1.3. 3) Systems of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, most likely by the Sumerians.

4.1.4. 4) Characters consist of arrangments of wedge-like strokes , generally on clay tablets. The history of the script is strikingly like that of the Egyptian hieroglyphic.

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4.2. Shang/ Zhou

4.2.1. 1) Bronze advancements were among the most impressive. In order to produce the amount of art, weapons, and ceremonial vessels, a large work force of lower class citizens was required.

4.2.2. 2) They had the time and money to invest in something as large scale as this. Their knack for metallurgy was used mostly for art and religious vessels for different ceremonies.

4.2.3. 3) Large tombs have been excavated revealing massive amounts of jade, bronze, and ceramic art. Artifacts found have also included various weaponry; the advanced bronze weapons contributed to their success as a civilization.

4.2.4. 4) . Lastly, bronze was used for chariots, which were developed in China around 1200 and also bettered their military. The Shang were advanced in the art of metallurgy for their time, which allowed them to develop their religion, art, and made them successful on the battlefield.

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5. Government and Leaders

5.1. Sumerians

5.1.1. 1) Priests held a high status in Sumer and initially governed the city- states. As city-states battled for dominance war chiefs began to rule as kings.

5.1.2. 2) Many of the city-states' kings formed dynasties.

5.1.3. 3) The Kings who served as gods' chief representatives, performed ceremonies to please their gods'.

5.1.4. 4) The ancient Mesopotamia's created a government that was a combination of monarchy and democracy. The kingdoms of Sumer were organized into city-states and the Kings ruled each city-states for the gods.

5.2. Shang/Zhou

5.2.1. 1) The early leaders established, "Mandate of Heaven". This concept taught that the leaders gained their authority to rule from the gods.

5.2.2. 2) The government of the Zhou was based on the feudal system. The emperor divided the land into fiefs that were usually ruled by his relatives. The nobles who ruled the fiefs basically owned the farmers who worked their lands.

5.2.3. 3) The highest position in the State was a "King" (as opposed to the later Emperors) who would preside over his own land which directly surrounded the capital.

5.3. 4) The rest of China was under the administration of many lords, who were often relatives of the King himself. They would rule like the King over their own territory (but smaller) and were given aristocratic titles. In this way, the Chinese Government during the Shang and Zhou resembled medieval Europe.

6. Science and Technology

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. 1) Mesopotamia developed bains to store rainwater, canals to carry water to fields, and dikes to control flooding.

6.1.2. 2) The Sumerians developed a math system based on the number 60. Because of their system we still divide an hour into 60 minutes and a circle into 360 degrees.

6.1.3. 3) They also learned to use geometry, which was necessary to build elaborate structures and irrigation systems.

6.1.4. 4) They invented the wheel to make pottery and build various vehicles.

6.1.5. 5) Sumerians invented plows to and used bronze to make stronger tools and weapons.

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6.2. Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. 1) The people of the Zhou Dynasty are more famous for their bronze work than for their iron work, despite iron being introduced during this dynasty's rule.

6.2.2. 2) The Zhou also ininvated with crop rotation. Which insured that there lands would stay fetrtile.

6.2.3. 3) As a result of the constant flooding of the river destroying crops, like many other ancient civilizations the Shang developed their own irrigation systems to use the flooding to their advantage.

6.2.4. 4) A lot of the bronze vessels made during this time had detailed inscriptions on them.

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7. Economy and Trade

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. 1) Sumerians obtained many of the materials for their buildings and art through trade. They traded with countries such as Southwest Asia. Sumer lacked many raw materials such as wood and metals.

7.1.2. 2) The Sumerians used salves, but they weren't a very large part of their economy.

7.1.3. 3) The Epic of Gilgamesh refers to trade with far lands for goods such as wood that were scarce in Mesopotamia. In particular, cedar from Lebanon was prized.

7.1.4. 4) The Sumerian economy was based on agriculture.

7.2. Shang/Zhou

7.2.1. 1) The Shang Dynasty is important because it is the first centralized kingdom in China to levy taxes, build an army that was effective over generations of people and to use the early pictographs that would become the modern characters of Mandarin Chinese.

7.2.2. 2) Their economy was based on agriculture, so it required many peasants and lots of work, which is convenient because they just so happen to have plenty of both during the Zhou.

7.2.3. 3) In the handicraft industry, the work was subtly allotted to many different workers and crafts were made in large quantities and varieties, showcasing the different techniques used during this time.

7.2.4. 4) Shang agriculture was the only part of the Shang economy considered too common to involve bronze tools. Bronze was used for storing and eating food, sacrificing, writing, and making weapons, but it was not used in cultivating land. This reflects the low social status of peasants in Shang society.