Forms expressing unreality

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Forms expressing unreality by Mind Map: Forms expressing unreality

1. Concession

1.1. The first concession: Even if/ even though Past Indefinite, Past or Present.

1.1.1. But even if you were right, I should be prepared for any contigency.

1.2. The second concession: Even if/ even though Past Perfect, Past or Present.

1.2.1. Even if I had been a stranger, he would have talked of his misfortune.

2. Condition

2.1. The first condition: If Present Simple, Future Simple

2.1.1. You won't be believed if you tell the truth.

2.2. The second condition: If Past Simple, would V...

2.2.1. How nice it would be for Mother if we had a car.

2.3. The third condtion; If Past Perfect, would have V3/Ved ...

2.3.1. It would have been too wonderful if he had said that. But he didn't.

3. Comparison

3.1. The first comparison; As if/as though Past Indefinite (the action is simultaneous)

3.1.1. He looks as though he had plenty of determination.

3.2. The second comparison; As if/ as though Past Perfect (the action preceeds)

3.2.1. Bosinney gazed at him as though he had not heard.

3.3. The third comparison; As if/as though would + infinitive (the action follows)

3.3.1. She looked up at me defiantly as if she would turn on me that very moment.

4. Purpose

4.1. The first purpose: an infinitive (when the agent of that infinitive is the same as the subject in the sentence)...

4.1.1. He said that he was going out to buy some stationary.

4.2. The second purpose: so that may/can + infinitive....

4.2.1. You'll have to come into the hospital so that we can keep you under observation.

4.3. The third purpose: lest should + infinitive...

4.3.1. Lest he freeze, he wore a ragged sweater over the ensemble.

5. Object clauses

5.1. The first type of object: 1) should + infinitive (suggestion, order, decision)/+Subjunctive Mood....; 2) after recommendations and necessity

5.1.1. 1) He suggested

5.1.1.1. we should go

5.1.1.1.1. He suggested we should go to the cinema.

5.1.1.2. ing- form (только с suggest)

5.1.1.2.1. He suggested going to the cinema.

5.1.1.3. (that) person V1

5.1.1.3.1. He suggested that she go home now.

5.1.2. 2) It is vital that you should meet him.../ it is vital that you meet him.

5.2. The second type of object: Indicative mood.

5.2.1. It is+ evaluative adjectives (оценочные)

5.2.1.1. It is absurd that he didn't tell me about his problems.

5.2.2. It is + emotional influence adjectives

5.2.2.1. It's puzzled me that he had come in time.

5.3. The third type of object: I wish (+/-) (Как жалко...)

5.3.1. Past Simple (refers to Present) and were for all persons.

5.3.1.1. I wish it were true.

5.3.2. Past Perfect (refers to Past)

5.3.2.1. I wish he had stayed at home.

5.3.3. would/might/could (refers to Future) NB: i wish I would => I wish I could

5.3.3.1. I wish I could drop the whole matter.

5.4. The fourth type of object: expressions of fear (согласование времен) Indicative или may + infinitive.

5.4.1. She is afraid that he may miss his only chance.

5.5. The fifth type of object: It's time (that) person + Past Simple

5.5.1. It's time that we went to a restaurant.

5.6. The sixth type of object: If/ whether (doubt) + Indicative

5.6.1. I doubt if they will make it.

5.7. The seventh type of object: regret + Ving

5.7.1. I regret studying so bad at that time.

6. Appositive clauses (time tenses work)

6.1. The first type of appositive: wish/etc that person should ....

6.1.1. My wish that you should enter the university will be fulfilled.

6.2. The second type of appositive: wish/ etc that person + Indicative Mood ....

6.2.1. The idea that he thought himself anything but intelligent was absurd.

7. Predicative clauses

7.1. The first type: Wish/ etc + is .... that person should

7.1.1. My wish is that you should enter the university.

7.2. The second type: Wish/etc +is ... that person + Indicative Mood

7.2.1. The question is that how we are going to find the means to do it.

8. Free use

8.1. The first type of free use

8.1.1. 1) Actual fact - Indicative Mood

8.1.2. 2) The action contradicting reality - Conditional

8.1.2.1. I wouldn't sell the picture for 10000$. It would be a crime to sell such a picture.

8.2. The second type of free use

8.2.1. 1) can (may) + simple infinitive (Present or future)

8.2.1.1. With his office training he might find a job with me.

8.2.2. 2) could (might) + perfect infinitive (Past)

8.2.2.1. Why on earth didn't he send to say that he was ill? We might have helped him.

8.3. The third type of free use: But for, would (если бы не...)

8.3.1. But for you, I would giveup everything.

8.4. The fourth type of free use: Conditional Mood + could (might) with implied condition or without it. (Я бы сказал...; не могли бы вы...)

8.4.1. I know that he wouldn't have enjoyed Le Roy"s story.

8.4.2. Why, I should have thought there could be no two answers to that.

8.5. The fifth type of free use: should, ought to, had better, would rather, would sooner, should (would) like + the same forms as after the verb WISH in object clauses.

8.5.1. She decided that they had better stay in town for another week.

9. Tradition use

9.1. The first type of traditional use: The Subjunctive Mood serves to express WISH in following sentences.

9.1.1. Long live the forces peace!

9.1.2. Success attend you!

9.1.3. Be ours a happy meeting!

9.1.4. God bless you.

9.1.5. Heaven forbid

9.2. The second type of traditional use: Subj. Mood serves to express concession which can be treated as set phrases.

9.2.1. So be it. (Да будет так.)

9.2.2. Come what will. (Будь, что будет.)

9.3. The third type of traditional use: The Subj. M. is found in expressions: Suffice to say that... (Достаточно сказать, что) and Far be it from me... (Я далек от того, чтобы...)

9.3.1. Far be it from me to contradict you.

9.4. The fourth type of traditional use: were found in the set phrases As it were... (Так сказать, как бы...)

9.4.1. They were silent and, as it were, oppressed.

9.5. The fifth type of traditional use: The Subj. M. is used in certain impressions.

9.5.1. Manners be hanged. (К черту хорошие манеры.)

9.6. The sixth type of traditional use: would + infinitive is found in As luck would have it (по счастливому стечению обстоятельств) or As ill luck would have it (на беду, как на зло).

9.6.1. As luck would have it, I was invited for that night.