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Using Technology to Motivate Learners to Increase Their Own Literacy Skills by Mind Map: Using Technology to Motivate
Learners to Increase Their Own
Literacy Skills
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Using Technology to Motivate Learners to Increase Their Own Literacy Skills

The Challenge

Professional Development

Various level of technology experience affects teaching styles.

Technology Integration Practice as a Function of Pedagogical Expertise Pierson, M. E.

“Integrating technology tools into the curriculum is becoming an inseparable part of good teaching.” p. 414

Technology experienced teachers used a technology as a tool in a variety of instructional projects. p.414

What role do exemplary technology-using teachers perceive for the computer technology in their classrooms for themselves and their students?

The methods each of these teachers used to teach with and about technology reflected the ways in which he or she learned best. p. 421

Many experts in a particular domain are not able to instruct others effectively because they cannot articulate how they do what they do. p. 425

Definition of expert technology integration p. 427

Problems of primary school teachers’ technology-instruction integration

The long-term goal of integrating technology into instruction is to cultivate students as lifelong pursuits. p.1

Previous research found that many factors had impact on teachers’ technology-instruction integration such as teachers’ previous background and motivation, teachers’ adequate knowledge and skills, necessary resources, and adequate training programs, etc. p.2

Researchers found that the more confident and comfortable teachers perceived, the more frequencies teachers use technology in the classroom (Christensen, 2002; Sandholtz, Ringstaff & Dwyer, 1997; Whitehead, 2002). p. 3

The higher self-efficacy of technology-instruction integration teachers perceived, the more opportunities they devoted effort and time to it. p.8

TABLE 10 Suggestions that may support teachers’ successful technology-instruction integration

Effectiveness of teacher development program in information technologies

Participant-Directed Evaluation: Using Teachers' Own Inquiries to Evaluate Professional Development in Technology Integration

Challenges of evaluating PD programs is to be duly comprehensive and systematic through teachers’ changed understandings and practices, to student learning in classrooms. p. 22

The other challenge is to develop conceptual designs for evaluations of technology professional development programs that adequately represent that comprehensiveness. p. 22

All 3 PD programs reviewed had technology focus, action research compomnent, and differed heavily in model, participation & method of delivery.

Chains of influence: PD events & content>Teacher outcomes>student outcomes p.26

Teacher at the center: more likely to be comprehensively valid provide rich multi-perspective data on the full chain of influence less likely to be universally reliable


Interview with Karen Cator, the director of the Office of Educational Technology at the U.S. Department of Education

Transforming Education with Technology Scherer, M.

talks about ways to realize the potential of technology to transform education

discusses what students need: their own digital devices for classroom use, the ability to use the information they access, the skills to communicate and collaborate online, and the understanding of what it means to be a digital citizen

To make the new national vision for technology in schools come to fruition, broadband must be available everywhere, and every educator must be a highly connected one.

integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in a teacher-guided collaborative online learning context encouraged students' critical response to literary texts

Integrating Technology with Literacy: Using Teacher-Guided Collaborative Online Learning to Encourage Critical Thinking Simpson, A.

demonstrates the link between research and good practice that is created when practitioners and researchers join to investigate how technology can meet strategic learning goals p. 119

it is well known that additional factors other than teacher attitude influence the success- ful use of ICT in the classroom. p.120

Previous research into the incorporation of ICT into primary school classrooms has investigated the professional development of teachers (Simpson and Ollila 2004). In order to document the impact of ICT technology on teaching practice, a study by Schibeci et al. (2008) proposed a pedagogic framework. p. 120

in the particular COLC of book raps, which is designed to operate in blended learning class- room contexts, the role of the online moderator is marginalised as students work collaboratively in groups in the school classroom as well as participate in the online context under the guidance of their teacher. p. 128

need for visual literacy as an additional instructional input for students creating technology integration solutions

Visual Literacy: The Missing Piece of Your Technology Integration Course Sosa, T.

defines visual literacy and the need for it; most definitions include some delineation of both the skills and abilities needed to generate meaningful visuals and those needed to interpret or “read” those visuals. p. 56

Action-research plan in which the problem did not lie in the completion of technology projects by preservice teachers rather their ability to produce effective visual cues and attractive work.

students must be provided with tools in order to make visual choices that are appropriate and suit the product they are creating; principals of visual design are outlined pg. 56

In our current increasingly visual age, where enhanced digital images are easily cre- ated and even more easily used, students must be made aware of the power of the conscious use of the visual. Anything less denies them the preparation they need to be effective, knowledgeable, and re- sponsible teachers.p. 57

A great number of technologies and tools have been developed to support science learning and teaching. However, science teachers and researchers point out numerous challenges to implementing such tools in science classrooms.

Technology Integration in Science Classrooms: Framework, Principles, and Examples Kim, M. C., & Freemyer, S.

guidelines, lesson plans, Web links, and tools teachers can easily find through Web-based search engines often do not reflect the goals of science education

Major challenges: lack of time, resources, and support

provides an overview of a theoretical framework for technology integration

discusses practical guidelines and principles for technology integration for science classrooms

presents examples of Web-based technologies available for integration in science classes


uses of technology in educational assessment from the perspective of innovation and support for teaching and learning

Perspectives on the Integration of Technology and Assessment Pellegrino, J. W., & Quellmalz, E. S.

examines assessment cases drawn from contexts that include large-scale testing programs as well as classroom-based programs, and attempts that have been made to harness the power of technology to provide rich, authentic tasks that elicit aspects of integrated knowledge, critical thinking, and problem solving.

These aspects of cognition are seldom well addressed by traditional testing programs using paper and pencil or computer technologies.

gives consideration to strategies for developing balanced, multilevel assessment systems that involve articulating relationships among curriculum-embedded, benchmark, and summative assessments that operate across classroom, district, state, national, and international levels

Creation of multimedia (MM) could be a valuable diversification of assessment methods within non-technical modules.

Diversifying Assessment through Multimedia Creation in a Non-Technical Module: Reflections on the MAIK Project Cox, A. M., Vasconcelos, A., & Holdridge, P.

The apparent popularity of sites based on user-generated video content such as YouTube and also of podcasting suggests that relevant skills and interest are becoming more mainstream.

there is an entrenched cultural suspicion of the visual as superficial.

The "technical skills" involved may give unfair advantage to some students.

Assessment can assist administrators and faculty in understanding the role of instructional/information technology (IT) as a value-added component of undergraduate education

Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life Sandler, M. E.  

The use of computers and various forms of information technology (IT) on college campuses are commonplace among students and faculty, reflecting the societal embrace of personal and mobile computing in terms of its usefulness and acceptance p. 3

A survey was developed to focus on the impact of information technology as a value-added component of teaching and learning inside and outside the classroom p. 3 In so doing the survey attempts to address the interactive and collaborative capacity of technology, so faculty and administrators can better understand the expectations that students and institutions have in using information technology p. 5

Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes.

Describes research underway that is attempting a breakthrough in the use of technology to improve assessment dramatically beyond the century-old methods in widespread use today.

Assessment, Technology, and Change Clarke-Midura, J., & Dede, C.

"We cannot directly inspect what students know or do not know." p. 310 (Sherlock Holmes)

When it comes to testing in an accountability setting, multiple-choice tests have been the favored choice because they have satisfied psychometric criteria, are more cost effective, and are easier to scale. p. 311

Paper-and-pencil tests are barely adequate to measure the minimum com- petencies required for low-level roles in industrial settings and fall woefully short of providing measures of the sophisticated knowledge and skills stu- dents need for 21st-century work and citizenship. p. 312

We are creating assessments that allow students to spend time investi- gating a problem space and engage in the inquiry process. p. 321

One of the advantages of developing virtual assessments is that they will alleviate the need for extensive training for administering tasks. It is difficult to standardize the administration of paper-based performance assessments, and extensive training is required to administer the tasks. With virtual as- sessments, we can ensure standardization by delivering instruction automatically via the technology. p. 324

Learning Disabilities

Presents a conceptual framework for multimedia instructional design grounded in theory and empirical research and concludes with recommendations for how to integrate multimedia literacy instruction within RTI frameworks

Literacy Instruction, Technology, and Students with Learning Disabilities: Research We Have, Research We Need Kennedy, M. J., & Deshler, D. D.

The gap between the level at which students with learning disabilities and curriculum demands is wide. Fortunately, considerable progress has been made in designing and validating interventions and instruc- tional protocols that markedly improve academic outcomes for students with LD. Increasingly, protocols have included technology-based solutions based on the rapid development of technology tools focused on reading. p. 289

In these experimental studies with a focus on literacy outcomes for students with LD, researchers began with theoretically based instructional principles and introduced logical uses of technology to deliver literacy instruction. As a result, the combination of the effective practice with a technology-based solution proved to be an effective intervention. p. 290

Multimedia Instructional Design Principles pg 293

Recommendations p. 295

Differentiated Instruction via Technology

Differentiating with Technology Stanford, P., Crowe, M. W., & Flice, H.

One of the most difficult challenges for diligent teachers is reaching the needs of an increasingly diverse student population.

Differentiated instruction (DI) with the use of technology offers the opportunity for teachers to engage students in different modalities, while also varying the rate of instruction, complexity levels, and teaching strategies to engage and challenge students.

Differentiated instruction also allows teachers to begin to think and work “smarter” and more efficiently rather than trying to work harder to meet the needs of such a diverse student population.

examines technology integration within the context of response to intervention (RTI).

Response to Intervention and Evidence-Based Practices: Where Does Technology Fit? Smith, S. J., & Okolo, C.

Advancements in technology-based solutions for students with learning disabilities (LD) offer tremendous opportunities to enhance learning as well as meaningful access to the general education curriculum for this group of students.

At the forefront of special education reform, RTI is reshaping special education practice.

seeks to connect RTI components (e.g., evidence-based practice) with technology-based solutions in order to further ways in which technology tools can be incorporated into the lives of students with LD

Three effective practices (graphic organizers, written instruction, explicit instruction) are examined, along with their technology-based tools.