My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

1.1. Student-Centered Philosophy of Education Pragmatism

1.1.1. Generic notions - Children are active and organic beings, that are growing and changing. Course of study needs to reflect the stage of development they are currently in. Freedom and responsibility for students. Democracy was very important for Dewey.

1.1.2. Key Researchers - George Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), William James (1842-1910) and John Dewey (1859-1952). European philosophers like Locke and Rosseau also classified as pragmatists. They are action oriented. Dewey philosophy on education influenced progressive education.

1.1.3. Goal of Education - Ideas need to be implemented, challenged and restructured. School should prepare students to function in a Democratic society after schooling.

1.1.4. Role of Teacher - no longer the authoritarian figure. The teacher encourages, suggests, questions and helps plan the course of study.

1.1.5. Method of Instruction - Children should learn in small groups or individually. Children should ask questions and use problem-solving skills. Formal instruction abandoned.

1.1.6. Curriculum - tend to follow Dewey's core curriculum or integrated curriculum. All disciplines would be applied to a task in an interconnected way. Curriculum changes as social order changes, is not set.

2. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. The push for Equality and Opportunity had a major impact on the school system. Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education reversed the "separate but equal" doctrine. Schools were no longer allowed to be segregated and this lead the way form more legislature that made more educational opportunities available to more people.

2.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School : interpret U.S. education history optimistically. 2 processes, popularization and multitudinousness. Expand educational opportunities to a more diverse group of people.

3. Politics of Education Chapter 2

3.1. 4 Purposes of Education

3.1.1. Intellectual Purpose: Teach basic cognitive skills, transmit knowledge on the subjects and help students develop higher-level thinking skills.

3.1.2. Political Purpose: Teach students the basic laws of society so they can participate in politics. To help assimilate children from different cultures.

3.1.3. Social Purpose: Educate children on various values, behaviors and roles found in society. *Socialization

3.1.4. Economic Purpose: Prepare students for work (occupation) after the classroom.

3.2. Perspective

3.2.1. The Role of the School Conservative Perspective- the role of the school is essential in promoting economic prosperity and maintaining social order

3.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance Liberal Perspective- some students enter the educational system with more advantages than others. Society is responsible in making the playing field equal for all.

3.2.3. Definition of Education Problems Radical Perspective- much more bleak. The school system has failed all minorities. Promote conformity. Curriculum is classist, racist, sexist and homophobic.

4. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

4.1. Theoretical Perspective Between School and Society

4.1.1. Functionalism- view society like a machine, parts working together. Values and cohesion at the center. Conflict represents a breakdown of shared values in society.

4.1.2. Conflict Theories- dominant groups impose their will on subordinate groups. They do this through force and manipulation. Economic, political, cultural, and military power is the glue that holds society together. *Struggle

4.1.3. Interactional Theories - are critiques and extensions of the two theories above, Functionalism and Conflict Theories. Analysis helps with the Big Picture but not so much on the every day level of school activity.

4.2. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individual

4.2.1. Employment : Schooling can help determine what job you will be able to have after graduation. You will not be able to be a doctor unless you complete the necessary years of schooling. Credentials are what most employers evaluate when looking to hire and individual for a position.

4.2.2. Teacher Behavior : teachers are models for students. Expectations play a big role in whether a teacher will encourage or discourage a student. Studies have shown that some teachers tend to have lower expectations for minority students. Each student should have the same expectations. The teacher needs to show that they care about the students education

4.2.3. Inadequate Schools - students will be exposed to inequalities in the school system. Differences in schools like funding, supplies, and teachers can reinforce already existing inequalities. Students will feel like the system is already failing them before they have a chance

4.2.4. Gender - Students will see inequalities in schools through gender discrimination. Girls will start to have lower self-esteem and not live up to their full potential. Teachers are female and administrators are male, could this have something to do with girls having lower aspirations.

4.2.5. Tracking - students that are on a "high-ability" track will receive better resources, individual time with teachers and more extracurricular activities. Students that are tracking low will be more likely to continue to fall behind, be alienated and have teachers that fail to provide adequate learning activities.

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. District # 5

5.1.1. Federal Level - Senators: Richard Shelby and Luther Strange. Representatives: Mo Brooks. Local Level - Senators: Arthur Orr and Bill Holtzclaw. Representatives: Mike Ball and Mac McCutcheon. State Superintendent: Michael Sentence. State School Board: Kay Ivey, Stephanie Bell, Cynthia McCarty, Jackie Ziegler, Betty Peters, Yvette M. Richardson, Ella B. Bell, Jeffrey Newman, Mary S. Hunter and Ed Richardson. Local Superintendent (Madison County): Matt Massey. Local School Board (Madison County): Nathan Curry, Angie Bates, Mary Louise Stowe, Dave Weis and Shere Rucker.

5.2. Elements of Change Within: 1. School Processes - Schools are very political so this makes any change very difficult. Many groups have their interests in mind, unions and board members. 2. School Culture - School Culture is fragile and power and political struggle is what keeps the culture of a school in an equilibrium phase. Authority and the conflict of competing or conflicting goals is apparent in most schools. Change involves new ways of thinking and much patience.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. A curriculum theory that I would advocate for would be The Social Efficiency Curriculum. This theory is rooted in the belief that students are different and these different groups have needs and aspirations that vary from the other. These students should receive different schooling. This reinforces the idea that a one-size-fits-all style of teaching does not work for every student. More individualized and personal instruction will benefit each student.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition- based on the viewpoint that the main purpose of education is to transmit knowledge to the student, usually through lecture or presentation (didactic method). Just a process of transferring information from teacher to student. Clear forms of assessment, measurable goals.

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition- the purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way. Can be intellectually, creatively, spiritually or emotionally. The transmission of knowledge is not the only component of education, teaching and learning are linked. Conversations are important between teacher and student, the student becomes an integral part of their learning experience. The student is required to participate in their education.

7. Equality and Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Educational Outcomes Impacted by....

7.1.1. Class - Students in different social classes will have different educational experiences. If a student comes from a wealthy or middle class background they are more likely to stay in school longer. These students will more likely be enrolled in extracurricular activities and have more pressure on them to succeed academically. If a student comes from a low socioeconomic background the emphasis will not be on school. They are less likely to have the materials and supplies. The higher an individuals social class, the more likely they are to go to college.

7.1.2. Race - Minorities are at a greater risk for dropping out of school. Statistically minorities have a lower level of proficiency that can lead to lower SAT scores. In the US it is difficult to separate race and class. It is clear the minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as their white peers.

7.1.3. Gender - At one time women were less likely to have the same education as their male counterparts. Now, women are less likely to drop out of school and tend to have higher reading proficiency than males. Males outperform females in one area and that is mathematics. Over the past 20 years gender gaps in education have been greatly reduced.

7.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. Jencks (1985) put it simply that there were differences between public and Catholic schools (statistically significant) but in terms of differences in learning, the results are negligible. Seen as trivial advantages. Private schools seem to "do it better" but there is really no difference between knowledge learned.

7.2.2. Baker and Riordan argued that Catholic schools have become more elite schools. Catholic schools are beneficial for minorities in urban schools but they are getting more elite, so the question comes up if the schools will continue to benefit the poor.

8. Education Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Cultural Difference Theory

8.1.1. Adapt to oppressed position in the class and the caste structure. This theory was introduced by the anthropologist John Ogbu. Ogbu suggests that African-American students must abandon their culture in order to fit in in the school, they must "act white." Stress that schools look at and reflect on the cultures of all students and not just the culture of the dominant group of students. There also needs to be a change in student, parental and community cultures, it is not solely the school.

8.1.2. Working class and nonwhite students resist the dominant culture of the school. They abandon the white culture of academic success and embrace an anti school culture. There are higher drop out rates and students enter the work force. Subordinate groups see no value in embracing the culture of school because they believe that it will not benefit them.

8.2. School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School Financing - Schools that are in wealthier areas will be able to spend more money per-pupil than a school that is in a poor inner city. Majority of funds for schools come from state and local taxes. Property values are higher in more affluent neighborhoods, poorer communities have lower property taxes.

8.2.2. 2. Class-Based School Differences - Schools in different socioeconomic areas reflect the culture and students that attend that school. The difference between elite private schools and urban schools.

8.2.3. 3. Ability Grouping in the school - Tracking can be viewed as a way to group students and can result in unequal education between groups. For example, it is assumed that students that are in a lower track will not be able to do academic work so they are not offered any work that is challenging. Tracking has significant effect on educational attainment.

8.2.4. 4. Gender inequalities that are reproduced in schools - The organization of schools reinforces gender roles and gender inequality. Women are more likely to teach elementary grades and men secondary grades. Shows men in higher authority positions than women. Women teach children and men teach ideas.

9. Education Reform Chapter 10

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships - partnerships between businesses and schools. Foundations and entrepreneurs have contributed millions of dollars to schools. The Walton Foundation has funded charter schools and voucher initiatives. Mark Zuckerberg contributed $100 million to improve education in Newark, New Jersey.

9.1.2. Teacher Education - Major teacher education reform, large scale overhaul of the system the prepares teachers. Must attract and retain competent teacher candidates. Increase of standards in teacher education and in teaching. The desire to create career ladders for teachers, developing entry-level requirements into the profession. Fix teacher recruitment and ensure that there are good teachers in every classroom. Reward teachers for their knowledge and skill and encourage teachers to continue with their education (conferences, further training, seminars).

9.2. Societal, Economic, Community or Political Reforms

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools - These full service schools focus on meeting the needs as well as the needs of their parents and community. This is a collaborative process. The schools service a community center offering services like adult education classes, after school programs and drug and alcohol programs to name a few. Theses are specifically targeted to improve at-risk neighborhoods.

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone - Provide quality early childhood education to parents. This can help low-income children be successful when they begin school. "Baby College" teach parents how to have academic conversations with their children. This can also help them have a healthier home environment. The program even provided families with items they needed but could not afford. Acceptable forms of discipline were introduced as well.