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1. All philosophical groups want the same things of education: o to improve the educational process o to enhance the achievement of the learner o to produce better and more productive citizens o to improve society



2.1.1. Progressivism (pragmatism)...promotes Democratic social living / Reconstructionism (pragmatism) improve and reconstruct society/education for change and social reform / Vocational Education Pragmatism curriculum based on individuals' experiences with the world role of teachers was to facilitate, i.e., lead group activities aims at the development of both the psychological and the sociological aspects of the individual Growth -physically, intellectually and morally -of the individual is important in a pragmatic education teachers draw from many teaching strategies and use all possible physical environments, both in and outside of the school student motivation is key and teachers recognize that students are at different development stages and therefore what motivates one student will not necessarily motivate another believe in action based education and use problem solving, experimentation, and a project approach Reconstructionism Social Transformation founded on the belief that schools intervene actively to shape changes and to reform society society is in need of constant reconstruction or change Reconstructionism can be seen as a recent extension of pragmatism. students could spend equal amounts of time in and outside the classroom (learn from real world environments Vocational education closely tied to reconstructionist theories Progressivism Progressive education focused on the experience itself, not the context of the experience. closely linked to reconstructionist approach

2.1.2. emphasizes present and future

2.1.3. views events as changeable/nothing can be preserved for ever/change is inevitable

2.1.4. subject matter is medium for teaching skills and attitudes

2.1.5. concerned with problem solving/focus on interest and needs

2.1.6. linked to moral and social development

2.1.7. what is good for the individual comes first

2.1.8. teacher is a guide for learning/change agent

2.2. Horizontal Organization ● blends curriculum elements ● E.g. blends history/anthropology and sociology – creates contemporary studies

2.3. Vertical Organization ● sequences curriculum elements ● E.g. – Grade One = family social studies / Grade Two = community social studies ● curriculum organized such that topics are covered in different grades, but to a greater degree and with increasing difficulty


2.4.1. Essentialism (idealism/realism) promote intellectual growth / Perrenialism (realism) educate rational people/cultivate intellect Idealism - "Idealists see curriculum as a vehicle by which students are taught to conceptualize, to develop thinking skills and to reach self-actualization" (Hill, 1994 ) opposed to the idea of schooling that leads to specialization student centered curriculum with a focus on autonomy and individual growth favor holistic learning rather than specialized learning self actualization approach goal is to develop broad understandings of the world curriculum leads to more liberal attitudes toward learning Realism - "Truth for the realist is fixed and education focuses on the physical universe and the world external to the classroom (Hill, 1994)." a realistic education focuses on the search for truth in the physical universe subject matter is fixed and it is up to the students to uncover, understand, and apply it to the world outside of classrooms Prevalence of subject-based curriculum to meet the needs of society facts and information about the external world are of central to a realistic education teachers are subject matter experts who share their knowledge with their students

2.4.2. focus on mind and training in subject matter

2.4.3. teacher is authority

2.4.4. group values come first / cooperativeness and conformity are important for the good of society

2.4.5. certain subjects more important than others

2.4.6. emphasizes fixed/absolute values

2.4.7. knowledge and the disciplines prepare students for freedom


3.1. Science as a Source

3.1.1. curriculum design contains only observable and quantifiable elements

3.1.2. problem solving is the priority

3.1.3. emphasizes learning how to learn

3.2. Society as a Source

3.2.1. school is a an agent of society

3.2.2. curriculum ideas stem from analysis of social situation

3.2.3. designed to serve/benefit local communities/larger societites

3.3. Moral Doctrine as a Source

3.3.1. look to past for guidance in content

3.3.2. emphasize lasting truths by the great thinkers

3.3.3. curriculum design stresses content

3.3.4. some subjects ranked more important than others

3.4. Knowledge as a Source

3.4.1. primary source of curriculum

3.4.2. valued knowledge is meant to stimulate and develop the learnervalued knowledge is meant to stimulate and develop the learner

3.4.3. gives students a real world view (closer to reality)

3.4.4. today's challenge: explosion of knowledge and access to knowledge

3.5. The Learner as a Source

3.5.1. curriculum should be derived from student knowledge how they learn how they form attitudes how they generate interests how they develop values

3.5.2. draws from psychological foundations - how the mind creates meaning


4.1. Subject Centred Designs

4.1.1. most popular

4.1.2. heavily based on Plato's academic ideas

4.1.3. knowledge and content are parts of the curriculum

4.1.4. scope: well defined - content preplanned

4.1.5. continuity-sequence well defined; preplanned

4.1.6. integration: weak, except for broad fields; depends on learners

4.2. Thematic Design

4.3. Subject Design

4.4. Discipline Design

4.5. Broad-Fields Design

4.6. Correlation Design

4.7. Process Design

4.8. Learner Centred Designs

4.8.1. teachers stress the whole child

4.8.2. stresses two of the three big ideas regarding thinking about education: socialization and Rousseau's developmental ideas

4.8.3. scope: not well defined; content varies

4.8.4. continuity-sequence not well defined

4.8.5. integration: strong; content relevant to learners

4.9. Humanistic Design

4.10. Romantic (Radial Design)

4.11. Experienced Centred Design

4.12. Child Centred Design

4.13. Problem Centred Design

4.13.1. focuses on real-life problems of individuals and society

4.13.2. based on social issues

4.13.3. curricular organization depends on the nature of the problems to be studied

4.13.4. scope: not well defined; content varies

4.13.5. continutity-sequence not well defined

4.13.6. integration: strong; content relevant to learners

4.14. Reconstructionist Design

4.15. Life Situation Design


5.1. Ornstein, A. C. (1990/1991). Philosophy as a basis for curriculum decisions. The High School Journal, 74, 102-109.

5.2. Hill, A. M. (1994). Perspectives on philosophical shifts in vocational education: From realism to pragmatism and reconstructionism. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 10(2), 37-45.

5.3. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2013). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Read Chapter 6, pp. 149-173.

5.4. Sowell, E. J. (2005). Curriculum: An integrative introduction (3rd ed., pp. 52-54, 55-61, 81-85,103-106). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.