The sounds of language

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The sounds of language by Mind Map: The sounds of language

1. Bilabials

1.1. These are sounds formed using both (= bi) upper and lower lips (= labia). The initial sounds in the words pat, bat and mat are all bilabials. They are represented by the symbols [p], which is voiceless, and [b] and [m], which are voiced.

2. Palatals

2.1. If you feel back behind the alveolar ridge, you should find a hard part in the roof of your mouth. This is called the hard palate or just the palate. Sounds produced with the tongue and the palate are called palatals

3. Dentals

3.1. These sounds are formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth. The initial sound of thin and the final sound of bath are both voiceless dentals. The symbol used for this sound is [θ], usually referred to as “theta.”

4. Phonetics

4.1. The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds is called phonetics. Our main interest will be in articulatory phonetics, which is the study of how speech sounds are made, or articulated.

5. Voiced and voiceless sounds

5.1. In articulatory phonetics, we investigate how speech sounds are produced using the fairly complex oral equipment we have

6. Labiodentals

6.1. These are sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip. The initial sounds ofthe words fat and vat and the final sounds in the words safe and save are labiodentals. They are represented by the symbols [f], which is voiceless, and [v], which is voiced

7. Place of articulation

7.1. Once the air has passed through the larynx, it comes up and out through the mouth and/or the nose. Most consonant sounds are produced by using the tongue and other parts of the mouth

8. Alveolars

8.1. These are sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge, which is the rough, bony ridge immediately behind and above the upper teeth. The initial sounds in top, dip, sit, zoo and nut are all alveolars.

9. Velars

9.1. Even further back in the roof of the mouth, beyond the hard palate, you will find a soft area, which is called the soft palate, or the velum. Sounds produced with the back of the tongue against the velum are called velars. There is a voiceless velar sound, represented by the symbol [k],

10. Glottals

10.1. There is one sound that is produced without the active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth. It is the sound [h