module 22/23/24 memory

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module 22/23/24 memory by Mind Map: module 22/23/24 memory

1. memory

1.1. learning that persists over time

1.1.1. acquired

1.1.2. stored

1.1.3. retrieved

2. measuring retention

2.1. recall

2.1.1. retrieving info not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time

2.2. recognition

2.2.1. identifying items previously learned

2.3. relearning

2.3.1. learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time.

3. recognition is really high

4. we remember more than we can recall

4.1. importance of overlearning

5. memory models

5.1. encoding

5.1.1. get information into our brain

5.2. storage

5.2.1. retain that information

5.3. retrieval

5.3.1. get the information back out

6. parallel processing

6.1. the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of the information processing for many functions

7. memory-forming process

7.1. sensory information

7.1.1. to-be-remembered information

7.1.1.1. iconic memory

7.1.1.1.1. a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, photograph memory

7.1.1.2. echoic memory

7.1.1.2.1. a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli despite lack of attention works can be recalled in 3-4 seconds

7.2. short-term memory

7.2.1. encode it through rehearsal

7.3. long-term memory

7.3.1. for retreival

8. working memory

8.1. active processing of incoming information and long-term information

8.2. focuses our spotlight of attention

9. encoding memories

9.1. explicit memories

9.1.1. memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

9.1.1.1. effortful processing

9.1.1.1.1. .citamoutua emoceb nac gnissecorp luftroffe

9.2. implicit memories

9.2.1. retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection

9.2.1.1. automatic processing

9.2.1.1.1. without our awareness

9.2.2. procedural memory (riding a bike)

9.2.3. classically conditioned associations among stimuli (tense up later bcuz you were attacked by a dog in childhood)

9.2.4. space

9.2.5. time

9.2.6. frequency

10. effortful processing strategies

10.1. chunking

10.1.1. organizing items into familiar units

10.2. mnemonics

10.2.1. peg-word system: visual imagery skill memorize a jingle then put words to it.

10.2.1.1. acronym: first leters of a to be remembered item

10.3. hierarchies

10.3.1. memorizing from broad to specific

11. spacing effect

11.1. encoding distributed over time

12. those who learn quickly also forget quickly -Hermann Ebbinghaus

13. distributed practice leads to more durable learning

14. testing effect

14.1. enhanced memory after retrieving rather than simply rereading.

15. levels of processing

15.1. shallow processing

15.1.1. encoding on basic level of structure or appearance of words

15.2. Deep processing

15.2.1. encoding semantically, based on the meaning of words; tends to yield best retention

16. Storing and retrieving memories

16.1. long-term memory is essentially limitless

16.2. our brain doesn't store things like a library instead it is rather a vast network of encoding, storing, and retrieving

17. explicit memory system

17.1. semantic

17.1.1. facts and general knowledge

17.2. episodic

17.2.1. experienced events

18. stored in frontal lobes and hippocampus

18.1. recalling and holding in working memory: left frontal lobe

18.2. visual party scene: right frontal lobe

18.3. hippocampus: like a save button for explicit memories like names images or events

18.3.1. left: verbal info

18.3.2. right: visual designs and locations

19. memory consolidation

19.1. neural storage of long-term memory

19.2. sleep supports memory consolidation

20. implicit memory system

20.1. cerebellum plays a key role in forming and storing memory by classical conditioning

20.2. layed down by automatic processing

20.3. basal ganglia: motor movement: facilitare procedural memories for skills

21. amygdala, emotions, and memory

21.1. stress hormones

21.1.1. fuel brain activity by producing more glucose

21.1.2. focus memory

21.1.3. provokes amygdala that gives memory trace

22. flashbulb memories

22.1. a clear memory of an emotionally significant event or moment

23. synaptic changes

23.1. long-term potentiation

23.1.1. an increase in cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

23.2. safe and free memory enhancer: sleep and effective study techniques

24. memory processing

24.1. automatic

24.1.1. implicit memories (nondeclarative)

24.1.1.1. processed in cerebellum and ganglia

24.1.1.1.1. space time and frequency (where you ate dinner yesterday)

24.1.1.1.2. motor and cognitive skills (riding a bike)

24.1.1.1.3. classical conditioning (reaction to dentist's office)

24.2. effortful

24.2.1. explicit memories (declarative)

24.2.1.1. processed in hippocampus and frontal lobes

24.2.1.1.1. semantic memory: facts and general knowledge (this module's concepts)

24.2.1.1.2. episodic memory: personally experienced events (family holidays)

25. memory retrieval

25.1. going through a web of associations

25.2. priming

25.2.1. the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

25.3. context-dependent memory

25.3.1. doctor seen in unusual place know the person but can't put who it is.

25.3.2. scuba divers 10 feet under on beach

25.4. State and/or mood-dependent memory

25.4.1. being drunk

25.4.2. mood state

25.4.2.1. magnify or exaggerate memory

25.4.3. recall experiences consistent with mood

25.5. serial position effect

25.5.1. primacy effect

25.5.1.1. only first items recalled well

25.5.2. recency effect

25.5.2.1. last items best with immediate recall

26. forgetting, memory construction, and improving memory

26.1. if we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as if we remembered nothing."

27. anterograde amnesia

27.1. recall his past, but he could not form new memories (can't remember the future)

28. retrograde amnesia

28.1. inability to retrieve information from one's past (can't remember the past)

29. Encoding failure

29.1. much of what we sense we never notice and what we fail to encode we will never remember

30. how memories are forgotten

30.1. never recorded

30.2. discarded or decay

30.3. cant be retrieved

31. proactive interference

31.1. occurs when prior learning disrupts your recall of new information (old information messes with new)

32. retroactive interference

32.1. new learning disrupts recall of old information (new information messes with old)

33. the hour before sleep is a good time to commit information to memory

34. motivated forgetting

34.1. as we process information we filter, alter, or lose much of it

34.2. researchers told some participants about the benefits of frequent toothbrushing. Those individuals then recalled (more than others did) having frequently brushed their teeth in the preceding two weeks.

35. repression

35.1. in psychoanalytic theory, basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

36. reconsolidation

36.1. process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again.

37. misinformation effect

37.1. when misleading information has corrupted one's memory of an event.

38. "It isn't so astonishing, the number of things I can remember, as the number of things I can remember that aren't so." -Mark Twain

39. source amnesia

39.1. attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (misattribution)

40. deja vu

40.1. that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

41. improving memory

41.1. Rehearse repeatedly

41.1.1. use distributed (spaced) practice

41.2. make the material meainingful

41.3. activate retrieval cues

41.3.1. mentally re-create the situation, and the mood in which your original learning occurred.

41.4. use mnemonic devices

41.4.1. peg words

41.4.2. story of items with vivid images

41.4.3. rhythmic rhymes

41.5. minimize interference

41.5.1. study before sleep

41.5.2. do not schedule back-to-back for study topics likely to interfere with each other.

41.6. sleep more

41.6.1. even 10 minutes of waking rest enhances memory

41.7. test your knowledge

41.7.1. reahearse

41.7.2. find out what you don't know