module 22/23/24 memory

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module 22/23/24 memory by Mind Map: module 22/23/24 memory

1. memory models

1.1. encoding

1.1.1. get information into our brain

1.2. storage

1.2.1. retain that information

1.3. retrieval

1.3.1. get the information back out

2. parallel processing

2.1. the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of the information processing for many functions

3. memory-forming process

3.1. sensory information

3.1.1. to-be-remembered information iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, photograph memory echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli despite lack of attention works can be recalled in 3-4 seconds

3.2. short-term memory

3.2.1. encode it through rehearsal

3.3. long-term memory

3.3.1. for retreival

4. working memory

4.1. active processing of incoming information and long-term information

4.2. focuses our spotlight of attention

5. encoding memories

5.1. explicit memories

5.1.1. memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" effortful processing .citamoutua emoceb nac gnissecorp luftroffe

5.2. implicit memories

5.2.1. retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection automatic processing without our awareness

5.2.2. procedural memory (riding a bike)

5.2.3. classically conditioned associations among stimuli (tense up later bcuz you were attacked by a dog in childhood)

5.2.4. space

5.2.5. time

5.2.6. frequency

6. effortful processing strategies

6.1. chunking

6.1.1. organizing items into familiar units

6.2. mnemonics

6.2.1. peg-word system: visual imagery skill memorize a jingle then put words to it. acronym: first leters of a to be remembered item

6.3. hierarchies

6.3.1. memorizing from broad to specific

7. spacing effect

7.1. encoding distributed over time

8. those who learn quickly also forget quickly -Hermann Ebbinghaus

9. distributed practice leads to more durable learning

10. testing effect

10.1. enhanced memory after retrieving rather than simply rereading.

11. levels of processing

11.1. shallow processing

11.1.1. encoding on basic level of structure or appearance of words

11.2. Deep processing

11.2.1. encoding semantically, based on the meaning of words; tends to yield best retention

12. memory consolidation

12.1. neural storage of long-term memory

12.2. sleep supports memory consolidation

13. implicit memory system

13.1. cerebellum plays a key role in forming and storing memory by classical conditioning

13.2. layed down by automatic processing

13.3. basal ganglia: motor movement: facilitare procedural memories for skills

14. synaptic changes

14.1. long-term potentiation

14.1.1. an increase in cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

14.2. safe and free memory enhancer: sleep and effective study techniques

15. memory processing

15.1. automatic

15.1.1. implicit memories (nondeclarative) processed in cerebellum and ganglia space time and frequency (where you ate dinner yesterday) motor and cognitive skills (riding a bike) classical conditioning (reaction to dentist's office)

15.2. effortful

15.2.1. explicit memories (declarative) processed in hippocampus and frontal lobes semantic memory: facts and general knowledge (this module's concepts) episodic memory: personally experienced events (family holidays)

16. memory

16.1. learning that persists over time

16.1.1. acquired

16.1.2. stored

16.1.3. retrieved

17. measuring retention

17.1. recall

17.1.1. retrieving info not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time

17.2. recognition

17.2.1. identifying items previously learned

17.3. relearning

17.3.1. learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time.

18. recognition is really high

19. we remember more than we can recall

19.1. importance of overlearning

20. Storing and retrieving memories

20.1. long-term memory is essentially limitless

20.2. our brain doesn't store things like a library instead it is rather a vast network of encoding, storing, and retrieving

21. explicit memory system

21.1. semantic

21.1.1. facts and general knowledge

21.2. episodic

21.2.1. experienced events

22. stored in frontal lobes and hippocampus

22.1. recalling and holding in working memory: left frontal lobe

22.2. visual party scene: right frontal lobe

22.3. hippocampus: like a save button for explicit memories like names images or events

22.3.1. left: verbal info

22.3.2. right: visual designs and locations

23. amygdala, emotions, and memory

23.1. stress hormones

23.1.1. fuel brain activity by producing more glucose

23.1.2. focus memory

23.1.3. provokes amygdala that gives memory trace

24. flashbulb memories

24.1. a clear memory of an emotionally significant event or moment

25. memory retrieval

25.1. going through a web of associations

25.2. priming

25.2.1. the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

25.3. context-dependent memory

25.3.1. doctor seen in unusual place know the person but can't put who it is.

25.3.2. scuba divers 10 feet under on beach

25.4. State and/or mood-dependent memory

25.4.1. being drunk

25.4.2. mood state magnify or exaggerate memory

25.4.3. recall experiences consistent with mood

25.5. serial position effect

25.5.1. primacy effect only first items recalled well

25.5.2. recency effect last items best with immediate recall

26. forgetting, memory construction, and improving memory

26.1. if we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as if we remembered nothing."

27. anterograde amnesia

27.1. recall his past, but he could not form new memories (can't remember the future)

28. retrograde amnesia

28.1. inability to retrieve information from one's past (can't remember the past)

29. Encoding failure

29.1. much of what we sense we never notice and what we fail to encode we will never remember

30. how memories are forgotten

30.1. never recorded

30.2. discarded or decay

30.3. cant be retrieved

31. proactive interference

31.1. occurs when prior learning disrupts your recall of new information (old information messes with new)

32. retroactive interference

32.1. new learning disrupts recall of old information (new information messes with old)

33. the hour before sleep is a good time to commit information to memory

34. motivated forgetting

34.1. as we process information we filter, alter, or lose much of it

34.2. researchers told some participants about the benefits of frequent toothbrushing. Those individuals then recalled (more than others did) having frequently brushed their teeth in the preceding two weeks.

35. repression

35.1. in psychoanalytic theory, basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

36. reconsolidation

36.1. process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again.

37. misinformation effect

37.1. when misleading information has corrupted one's memory of an event.

38. "It isn't so astonishing, the number of things I can remember, as the number of things I can remember that aren't so." -Mark Twain

39. source amnesia

39.1. attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (misattribution)

40. deja vu

40.1. that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

41. improving memory

41.1. Rehearse repeatedly

41.1.1. use distributed (spaced) practice

41.2. make the material meainingful

41.3. activate retrieval cues

41.3.1. mentally re-create the situation, and the mood in which your original learning occurred.

41.4. use mnemonic devices

41.4.1. peg words

41.4.2. story of items with vivid images

41.4.3. rhythmic rhymes

41.5. minimize interference

41.5.1. study before sleep

41.5.2. do not schedule back-to-back for study topics likely to interfere with each other.

41.6. sleep more

41.6.1. even 10 minutes of waking rest enhances memory

41.7. test your knowledge

41.7.1. reahearse

41.7.2. find out what you don't know