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Diversity of Life by Mind Map: Diversity of Life

1. Archaea

1.1. Archaebacteria

1.1.1. Typically obligate anarobes

1.1.2. Live in extremely harsh environments eg. high salt concentrates areas such as the Death Sea

1.1.3. Divided into 3 groups 1. Methanogens (methane producers) 2. Halophiles (salt loving) 3. Thermophiles (heat loving)

1.1.4. Come in a variety of shapes

1.1.5. There is no peptidoglycan in their cell walls, and they contain entirely different lipids than Eubacteria

1.1.6. Do not cause disease

1.1.7. Representative Species Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Thaumarchaeota Lokiarchaeota Nanoarchaeum equitans Species of marine Archaea

2. Bacteria

2.1. Eubacteria

2.1.1. Shape Coccus (round) eg. Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacillus (rod-shaped) eg. Serratia marcescens Spirillum (spiral) eg. Campylobacter jejuni

2.1.2. Structure Cytoplasm: composed of water, enzymes nutrients, wastes and gases Plasmid: small loop of DNA that carries a small number of genes, floating in the cytoplasm (no true nucleus) Singular Circular Chromosome Ribosomes: for building proteins Pilli: small hair like structures that help the cell attach to other cells or surfaces Flagella: used for movement Cell wall Plasma membrane Peptidoglycan layer (long chains) Outer membrane Capsule and Plasma membrane: surround cytoplasm

2.1.3. Arrangement Diplo- Pairs Staphylo- Clumps Strapto- Strings

2.1.4. Nutrition (energy source) Most are heterotrophic Cannot manufacture its own food and instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances eg. parasites Some are autotrophic Make their own food Photoautotrophs- are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using light as an energy source Chemoautotrophs- are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using the oxidation of electrons as an energy source

2.1.5. Respiration Three types: 1. Obligate Aerobes: bacteria that need oxygen to live 2. Facultative Aerobes: Bacteria that makes energy by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present 3. Obligate Anaerobes: bacteria that cannot live in environments where there is oxygen or they will die

3. Eukarya

3.1. Plantae

3.1.1. Bryophytes: The Mosses Non-vascular, seedless plants Protective cuticles and stomata for gas exchange No true leaves or roots Terrestrial and aquatic eg. mosses, liverworts and hornworts

3.1.2. Seedless Vascular: The Ferns Lycophytes (club mosses) and Pterophytes (ferns) are a group Vessels to transport food and water Xylem Phloem Have roots, stems or leaves

3.1.3. Gymnosperms Vascular, Produces seeds called cones Cones are reproductive structures Pollen Ovules eg. coniferous trees such as pines, woody trees

3.1.4. Angiosperms Largest group of living plants Produces flowers and fruit Produces pollen and/or ovules Divided into Monocots Dicots eg. lemons, mango, roses

3.2. Fungi

3.2.1. Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Form the largest phylum of fungi along with Basidiomycota Asexual reproduction- spore shooters (produces ascus) Produce spores (ascospores) in asci eg. yeast, truffles and morels

3.2.2. Chytridiomycota (Chytrids) Zoospores Asexual spore: uses flagellum for movement Decomposers Sigle or multicellular eukaryotes Found in marine and freshwater ecosystem

3.2.3. Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) Decomposers Symbiotic relationship with plants Reproduce sexually Sometimes asexually Spores are basidiomycetes eg. mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs

3.2.4. Zygomycota (Zygospore) Many are parasites of insects Used as pesticides Soil fungi Reproduce sexually (meiosi) or asexually (mitosis) eg. bread and fruit molds

3.3. Animalia

3.3.1. Porifera Class Order Calcarea Homocoela Heterocoela Hexactinellida Hexasterophora Amphidiscophora Demospongiae Tetractinellida Monaxonida Keratosa

3.3.2. Nematoda Class Adenophorea Secernentea Long thread-like bodies, carnivores, produce sexually No circulatory system, anus is present


3.3.4. Cnidarians Class Order Bilateria Protostomia Deuterostomia Anthozoa Hexacorallia Octocorallia Medusozoa Staurozoa Cubozoa Scyphozoa Hydrozoa


3.3.6. Flatworms Class Order Turbellaria Archoophara Neoophore Digenea Aspidogastrea Cestoda Caryophyllidea, Spathebothrideo, Diphyllobothridea Bothriocephalidea, Tetraphyllidea, Trypanorhyncha Proteocephalidea, Cyclophyllidea Monogenea Monopisthocotylea Polyopisthocotylea Gyrocotylidea Bilaterally symmetrical, invertebrate

3.3.7. Mollusks Reproduction normally sexual, mostly aquatic and some terrestrial, invertebrate, have a nervous system Class Order Aplacophora Chaetodermomorpha Neomeniomorpha Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Gastropoda Prosobranchia Opisthobranchia Pulmonata Bivalvia Protobranchia Pteriomorphia Palaeoheterdonta Heterodonta Anomalodesmata Scaphopoda Cephalopoda Nautiloidea Ammonoidea (Extinct) Coleoidea


3.3.9. Annelida 3 classes 1. Polychaeta 2. Oligochaeta 3. Hirudinea Bilaterally symmetrical Body is covered by external cuticle


3.3.11. Anthropoda Class Crustacea lobster, crabs, barnicles Diplopoda milipedes Arachnida Chilopoda centipedes Insecta grasshopper, cockroach Merostomata horseshow crab Invertebrates, bilateral symmetry, open circulatory system eg. Horseshoe, crabs, spider, centipedes, insects


3.3.13. Echinoderms 5 classes 1. Starfish 2. Brittle stars 3. Echinoids (sea urchins and sand dollars) 4. Sea lillies 5. Sea cucumbers Reproduce sexually Invertebrate marine animals some are carnivores and feed on algae Commonly found on mosses and lichens Heterotrophs


3.3.15. Chordata Agnatha Lamprey Hagfish Chondrichthyes Sharks Actinopyherygill Trouth Tuna Salmon Amphibia Frogs Salamanders Caecillians Reptilia Snakes Lizards Crocodillians Aves Birds Mammalia Mammals Vertebrates, live in water, gills


3.4. Protista

3.4.1. Animal-like protists Pseudopods This is when the protist extends part of its cell body to move long eg. Amoebas Cilia Microscopic hair that flap together to help the organism move through water or other liquids eg. Paramecium Flagella Use their tail to move back and forth, helping to propel the organism eg. Euglena Mastigophorans Protist with flagella Sarcodines Protist with pseudopods Sporozoa Parasitic protist Ciliates Protist with cilia

3.4.2. Plant-like protists Euglenophytes Chrysophytes phaeoplaca2_bga Diatoms Arranged Diatoms on Microscope Slides in the California Academy of Sciences Diatom Collection Dinoflagellates Ceratium tripos (light micrograph) Contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis

3.4.3. Fungi-like protists Myxomycota Acrasiomycetes Hydromyxomycetes Myxoycetes Plasmodiophoromycetes Dictyostelida Oomycota Chytridiomycota Heterotrophs, Decomposers,