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Diversity of Life by Mind Map: Diversity of Life

1. Archaea

1.1. Archaebacteria

1.1.1. Typically obligate anarobes

1.1.2. Live in extremely harsh environments

1.1.2.1. eg. high salt concentrates areas such as the Death Sea

1.1.3. Divided into 3 groups

1.1.3.1. 1. Methanogens (methane producers)

1.1.3.2. 2. Halophiles (salt loving)

1.1.3.2.1. https://www.popsci.com/sites/popsci.com/files/styles/large_1x_/public/images/2015/01/dead-sea-bacteria.jpg?itok=X0hthwhP

1.1.3.2.2. http://seunghun.wikispaces.com/file/view/methanogens485.jpg/179866855/methanogens485.jpg

1.1.3.3. 3. Thermophiles (heat loving)

1.1.3.3.1. https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000GWM8kFE8YFU/s/860/860/K12-thermo36B.jpg

1.1.3.3.2. http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/pyrolobus.100a.jpeg

1.1.4. Come in a variety of shapes

1.1.5. There is no peptidoglycan in their cell walls, and they contain entirely different lipids than Eubacteria

1.1.6. Do not cause disease

1.1.7. Representative Species

1.1.7.1. Crenarchaeota

1.1.7.2. Euryarchaeota

1.1.7.2.1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Halobacteria.jpg

1.1.7.3. Thaumarchaeota

1.1.7.3.1. http://www.washington.edu/news/files/2015/08/SCM-1-20000X-TEM.png

1.1.7.4. Lokiarchaeota

1.1.7.4.1. http://cdn.sci-news.com/images/2015/05/image_2778-Archaea.jpg

1.1.7.5. Nanoarchaeum equitans

1.1.7.5.1. Species of marine Archaea

2. Eukarya

2.1. Plantae

2.1.1. Bryophytes: The Mosses

2.1.1.1. Non-vascular, seedless plants

2.1.1.2. Protective cuticles and stomata for gas exchange

2.1.1.3. No true leaves or roots

2.1.1.4. Terrestrial and aquatic

2.1.1.5. eg. mosses, liverworts and hornworts

2.1.1.6. http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgmar03/Moss2.jpg

2.1.2. Seedless Vascular: The Ferns

2.1.2.1. Lycophytes (club mosses) and Pterophytes (ferns) are a group

2.1.2.2. Vessels to transport food and water

2.1.2.2.1. Xylem

2.1.2.2.2. Phloem

2.1.2.3. Have roots, stems or leaves

2.1.2.4. https://swc2012.wikispaces.com/file/view/fern_leaf.jpg/405283278/298x306/fern_leaf.jpg

2.1.3. Gymnosperms

2.1.3.1. Vascular, Produces seeds called cones

2.1.3.2. Cones are reproductive structures

2.1.3.2.1. Pollen

2.1.3.2.2. Ovules

2.1.3.3. eg. coniferous trees such as pines, woody trees

2.1.3.4. http://www.theplantlist.org/img/photo/g-10.jpg

2.1.4. Angiosperms

2.1.4.1. Largest group of living plants

2.1.4.2. Produces flowers and fruit

2.1.4.3. Produces pollen and/or ovules

2.1.4.4. Divided into

2.1.4.4.1. Monocots

2.1.4.4.2. Dicots

2.1.4.5. eg. lemons, mango, roses

2.1.4.6. http://www.nhptv.org/wild/images/tawnydaylilyforestryDanTenaglia.jpg

2.2. Fungi

2.2.1. Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)

2.2.1.1. Form the largest phylum of fungi along with Basidiomycota

2.2.1.2. Asexual reproduction- spore shooters (produces ascus)

2.2.1.3. Produce spores (ascospores) in asci

2.2.1.4. eg. yeast, truffles and morels

2.2.1.5. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Scarlet_elf_cap_cadnant_dingle.jpg

2.2.2. Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)

2.2.2.1. Zoospores

2.2.2.1.1. Asexual spore: uses flagellum for movement

2.2.2.2. Decomposers

2.2.2.3. Sigle or multicellular eukaryotes

2.2.2.4. Found in marine and freshwater ecosystem

2.2.2.5. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/allomyces.jpg

2.2.3. Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)

2.2.3.1. Decomposers

2.2.3.2. Symbiotic relationship with plants

2.2.3.3. Reproduce sexually

2.2.3.3.1. Sometimes asexually

2.2.3.4. Spores are basidiomycetes

2.2.3.5. eg. mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs

2.2.3.6. http://www.funghiitaliani.it/micologia/images-tassonomia/basidiomycota4.jpg

2.2.4. Zygomycota (Zygospore)

2.2.4.1. Many are parasites of insects

2.2.4.1.1. Used as pesticides

2.2.4.2. Soil fungi

2.2.4.3. Reproduce sexually (meiosi) or asexually (mitosis)

2.2.4.4. eg. bread and fruit molds

2.2.4.5. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Zygomycota/Rhizopus_Zygote.jpg

2.3. Animalia

2.3.1. Porifera

2.3.1.1. Class

2.3.1.1.1. Order

2.3.1.2. Calcarea

2.3.1.2.1. Homocoela

2.3.1.2.2. Heterocoela

2.3.1.3. Hexactinellida

2.3.1.3.1. Hexasterophora

2.3.1.3.2. Amphidiscophora

2.3.1.4. Demospongiae

2.3.1.4.1. Tetractinellida

2.3.1.4.2. Monaxonida

2.3.1.4.3. Keratosa

2.3.1.5. http://lh6.ggpht.com/-ih9oPiQVseY/U0Y7ZNajupI/AAAAAAAADO4/B3ULoyxgM3U/PHYLUM%252520PORIFERA%252520_thumb%25255B6%25255D.jpg?imgmax=800

2.3.2. Nematoda

2.3.2.1. Class

2.3.2.2. Adenophorea

2.3.2.3. Secernentea

2.3.2.4. Long thread-like bodies, carnivores, produce sexually

2.3.2.5. No circulatory system, anus is present

2.3.3. http://circusystem.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/4/3/11434231/867969078.jpg?285

2.3.4. Cnidarians

2.3.4.1. Class

2.3.4.1.1. Order

2.3.4.2. Bilateria

2.3.4.2.1. Protostomia

2.3.4.2.2. Deuterostomia

2.3.4.3. Anthozoa

2.3.4.3.1. Hexacorallia

2.3.4.3.2. Octocorallia

2.3.4.4. Medusozoa

2.3.4.4.1. Staurozoa

2.3.4.4.2. Cubozoa

2.3.4.4.3. Scyphozoa

2.3.4.4.4. Hydrozoa

2.3.5. https://www.google.ca/search?q=Cnidarians&safe=strict&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjtsoiA6PfWAhVrzoMKHdqnAV4Q_AUICigB&biw=1440&bih=698#imgrc=kyXZp6ydyt0twM:

2.3.6. Flatworms

2.3.6.1. Class

2.3.6.1.1. Order

2.3.6.2. Turbellaria

2.3.6.2.1. Archoophara

2.3.6.2.2. Neoophore

2.3.6.3. Digenea

2.3.6.4. Aspidogastrea

2.3.6.5. Cestoda

2.3.6.5.1. Caryophyllidea, Spathebothrideo, Diphyllobothridea

2.3.6.5.2. Bothriocephalidea, Tetraphyllidea, Trypanorhyncha

2.3.6.5.3. Proteocephalidea, Cyclophyllidea

2.3.6.6. Monogenea

2.3.6.6.1. Monopisthocotylea

2.3.6.6.2. Polyopisthocotylea

2.3.6.6.3. Gyrocotylidea

2.3.6.7. Bilaterally symmetrical, invertebrate

2.3.7. Mollusks

2.3.7.1. Reproduction normally sexual, mostly aquatic and some terrestrial, invertebrate, have a nervous system

2.3.7.2. Class

2.3.7.2.1. Order

2.3.7.3. Aplacophora

2.3.7.3.1. Chaetodermomorpha

2.3.7.3.2. Neomeniomorpha

2.3.7.4. Polyplacophora

2.3.7.5. Monoplacophora

2.3.7.6. Gastropoda

2.3.7.6.1. Prosobranchia

2.3.7.6.2. Opisthobranchia

2.3.7.6.3. Pulmonata

2.3.7.7. Bivalvia

2.3.7.7.1. Protobranchia

2.3.7.7.2. Pteriomorphia

2.3.7.7.3. Palaeoheterdonta

2.3.7.7.4. Heterodonta

2.3.7.7.5. Anomalodesmata

2.3.7.8. Scaphopoda

2.3.7.9. Cephalopoda

2.3.7.9.1. Nautiloidea

2.3.7.9.2. Ammonoidea (Extinct)

2.3.7.9.3. Coleoidea

2.3.7.10. http://www.oneworldoneocean.com/images/blog/640px-Pseudobiceros_hancockanus.jpg

2.3.8. http://easyscienceforkids.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Snails.jpg

2.3.9. Annelida

2.3.9.1. 3 classes

2.3.9.1.1. 1. Polychaeta

2.3.9.1.2. 2. Oligochaeta

2.3.9.1.3. 3. Hirudinea

2.3.9.2. Bilaterally symmetrical

2.3.9.3. Body is covered by external cuticle

2.3.10. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-PlbYPxxBee8/Uj6OWsDsw5I/AAAAAAAAACY/Y2xNj6wvT-s/s1600/eisenia-veneta-51_005crop_compost.jpg

2.3.11. Anthropoda

2.3.11.1. Class

2.3.11.2. Crustacea

2.3.11.2.1. lobster, crabs, barnicles

2.3.11.3. Diplopoda

2.3.11.3.1. milipedes

2.3.11.4. Arachnida

2.3.11.5. Chilopoda

2.3.11.5.1. centipedes

2.3.11.6. Insecta

2.3.11.6.1. grasshopper, cockroach

2.3.11.7. Merostomata

2.3.11.7.1. horseshow crab

2.3.11.8. Invertebrates, bilateral symmetry, open circulatory system

2.3.11.9. eg. Horseshoe, crabs, spider, centipedes, insects

2.3.12. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/arachnida/Tarantula_Image_002.jpg

2.3.13. Echinoderms

2.3.13.1. 5 classes

2.3.13.1.1. 1. Starfish

2.3.13.1.2. 2. Brittle stars

2.3.13.1.3. 3. Echinoids (sea urchins and sand dollars)

2.3.13.1.4. 4. Sea lillies

2.3.13.1.5. 5. Sea cucumbers

2.3.13.2. Reproduce sexually

2.3.13.3. Invertebrate marine animals

2.3.13.4. some are carnivores and feed on algae

2.3.13.5. Commonly found on mosses and lichens

2.3.13.5.1. Heterotrophs

2.3.14. http://www.starfish.ch/Fotos/echinoderms-Stachelhauter/starfish-Seesterne/Fromia-nodosa2.jpg

2.3.15. Chordata

2.3.15.1. Agnatha

2.3.15.1.1. Lamprey

2.3.15.1.2. Hagfish

2.3.15.2. Chondrichthyes

2.3.15.2.1. Sharks

2.3.15.3. Actinopyherygill

2.3.15.3.1. Trouth

2.3.15.3.2. Tuna

2.3.15.3.3. Salmon

2.3.15.4. Amphibia

2.3.15.4.1. Frogs

2.3.15.4.2. Salamanders

2.3.15.4.3. Caecillians

2.3.15.5. Reptilia

2.3.15.5.1. Snakes

2.3.15.5.2. Lizards

2.3.15.5.3. Crocodillians

2.3.15.6. Aves

2.3.15.6.1. Birds

2.3.15.7. Mammalia

2.3.15.7.1. Mammals

2.3.15.8. Vertebrates, live in water, gills

2.3.16. http://www.alearningfamily.com/main/wp-content/uploads/GreatWhiteSharkEliasLevy.jpg

2.4. Protista

2.4.1. Animal-like protists

2.4.1.1. Pseudopods

2.4.1.1.1. This is when the protist extends part of its cell body to move long

2.4.1.1.2. eg. Amoebas

2.4.1.2. http://study.com/cimages/multimages/16/pseudopod.png

2.4.1.3. Cilia

2.4.1.3.1. Microscopic hair that flap together to help the organism move through water or other liquids

2.4.1.3.2. eg. Paramecium

2.4.1.4. https://pbs.twimg.com/profile_images/779116642932396033/SqQxnbB-.jpg

2.4.1.5. Flagella

2.4.1.5.1. Use their tail to move back and forth, helping to propel the organism

2.4.1.5.2. eg. Euglena

2.4.1.6. https://qph.ec.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-0a3a4945617cf265ace79421e9364686

2.4.1.7. Mastigophorans

2.4.1.7.1. Protist with flagella

2.4.1.8. Sarcodines

2.4.1.8.1. Protist with pseudopods

2.4.1.9. Sporozoa

2.4.1.9.1. Parasitic protist

2.4.1.10. Ciliates

2.4.1.10.1. Protist with cilia

2.4.2. Plant-like protists

2.4.2.1. Euglenophytes

2.4.2.2. https://www.biologycorner.com/resources/euglena1.jpg

2.4.2.3. Chrysophytes

2.4.2.4. phaeoplaca2_bga

2.4.2.5. Diatoms

2.4.2.6. Arranged Diatoms on Microscope Slides in the California Academy of Sciences Diatom Collection

2.4.2.7. Dinoflagellates

2.4.2.8. Ceratium tripos (light micrograph)

2.4.2.9. Contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis

2.4.3. Fungi-like protists

2.4.3.1. Myxomycota

2.4.3.1.1. Acrasiomycetes

2.4.3.1.2. Hydromyxomycetes

2.4.3.1.3. Myxoycetes

2.4.3.1.4. Plasmodiophoromycetes

2.4.3.2. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Myxomycota/fuligo.jpg

2.4.3.3. Dictyostelida

2.4.3.4. https://sites.google.com/site/gfopjrtigdioitwoirnlkfgoi/_/rsrc/1348069167218/xanacakr-sing-mi-chiwit/xanacakr-po-rti-s-ta-kingdom-protista/plasmodial-Myxomycete-horz.jpg

2.4.3.5. Oomycota

2.4.3.6. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/saprolegnia2.jpg

2.4.3.7. Chytridiomycota

2.4.3.8. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/IJICQ81RZ_E/maxresdefault.jpg

2.4.3.9. Heterotrophs, Decomposers,

3. Bacteria

3.1. Eubacteria

3.1.1. Shape

3.1.1.1. Coccus (round)

3.1.1.1.1. eg. Streptococcus pneumoniae

3.1.1.2. Bacillus (rod-shaped)

3.1.1.2.1. eg. Serratia marcescens

3.1.1.3. Spirillum (spiral)

3.1.1.3.1. eg. Campylobacter jejuni

3.1.2. Structure

3.1.2.1. Cytoplasm: composed of water, enzymes nutrients, wastes and gases

3.1.2.2. Plasmid: small loop of DNA that carries a small number of genes, floating in the cytoplasm (no true nucleus)

3.1.2.3. Singular Circular Chromosome

3.1.2.4. Ribosomes: for building proteins

3.1.2.5. Pilli: small hair like structures that help the cell attach to other cells or surfaces

3.1.2.6. Flagella: used for movement

3.1.2.7. Cell wall

3.1.2.7.1. Plasma membrane

3.1.2.7.2. Peptidoglycan layer (long chains)

3.1.2.7.3. Outer membrane

3.1.2.7.4. Capsule and Plasma membrane: surround cytoplasm

3.1.3. Arrangement

3.1.3.1. Diplo- Pairs

3.1.3.2. Staphylo- Clumps

3.1.3.3. Strapto- Strings

3.1.3.3.1. https://image.slidesharecdn.com/08-prokaryotes-130911160045-phpapp02/95/08-prokaryotes-12-638.jpg?cb=1378915319

3.1.4. Nutrition (energy source)

3.1.4.1. Most are heterotrophic

3.1.4.1.1. Cannot manufacture its own food and instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances

3.1.4.1.2. eg. parasites

3.1.4.2. Some are autotrophic

3.1.4.2.1. Make their own food

3.1.4.2.2. Photoautotrophs- are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using light as an energy source

3.1.4.2.3. Chemoautotrophs- are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using the oxidation of electrons as an energy source

3.1.5. Respiration

3.1.5.1. Three types:

3.1.5.1.1. 1. Obligate Aerobes: bacteria that need oxygen to live

3.1.5.1.2. 2. Facultative Aerobes: Bacteria that makes energy by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present

3.1.5.1.3. 3. Obligate Anaerobes: bacteria that cannot live in environments where there is oxygen or they will die