Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
20 Things by Mind Map: 20 Things

1. Open Source and Browsers

1.1. “Open source” means that the inner workings (or “source code”) of a software are made available to all, and the software is written in an open, collaborative way

1.1.1. Open source plays a major role in multiple parts of the web

1.1.2. Open source allows companies to work together to make the internet a better, more enjoyable place for the users.

1.2. The better the browser is, the better the experience of the internet is. This makes users happy, therefore they will come back fairly often. Better browsers also let companies create web apps with the latest cutting-edge features, and that makes users happy as well.

2. Using Web Addresses to Stay Safe

2.1. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

2.1.1. When you enter a URL, it is taken from it"s hosting server somewhere in the world. It travels through cables to your local internet connection, then displayed on your computers monitor.

2.1.2. The Scheme This is the first part of a URL. An example of a scheme in most URL's is http which stands for hypertext transfer protocol.

2.1.3. The Host This is where the website resides. When anyone creates a website, they register a hostname for themselves.Only they can use the hostname.

2.1.4. Path This sends you to a specific place on a host. The path tells the host server what you would like to see in certain web applications. An example is if you want to see google maps, the path will tell the web application (google) that you would like to view google maps. The path may be moved to the front of the hostname therefore making it a subdomain, such as

2.2. Staying Safe

2.2.1. Make sure that if you are visiting a website where you need to give up personal information, such as an account number or passwords, that there is a padlock symbol in front of the https://. This indicates that your information will be securely transported between the server and browser.

3. How Modern Browsers Help Protect you From Malware and Phishing

3.1. Risk #1: How often you come into contact with an attacker?

3.1.1. You can be exposed to attackers in many different ways, such as through a malicious fake website, or even through a familiar website that has been hacked. Luckily most modern browsers pre-check each web page you visit and alert you if one is suspected of being malicious

3.2. Risk #2: How vulnerable your browser is if it has been attacked?

3.2.1. Older browsers have a higher risk of being hacked. It is important to make sure your browser is updated to the most recent version. This will improve your security and make you less vulnerable. It is also important that you have security patches on your operating systems and your plug ins, so that they are up to date on the latest security.

3.3. Risk#3: How much damage is done if an attacker finds vulnerabilities in your browser?

3.3.1. Many browsers have what we call a sandbox. A browser sandbox builds a contained environment to keep malware and other security threats from infecting your computer. The sandbox prevents malicious codes from leaving the website, so that hey cannot harm your computer.

4. Browser Cookies

4.1. cookies keep a memory of websites you have visited, in the past or in progress

4.1.1. A cookie is a small piece of text sent to your browser by a website you visit. It contains information about your visit that you may want the site to remember, such as your username and password and many other settings. The browser stores this data and pulls it out the next time you visit the site to make the next trip easier and more personalized

4.2. you can choose which sites you trust and allow cookies only for those sites, blocking cookies from everyone else

5. Browsers and Privacy

5.1. browser security helps protect you from malware, phishing, and other online attacks, while privacy features help keep your browsing private on your computer

5.1.1. As you browse the web you create a history of the sites you visit, the cookies sent to your browser, and any files you well as passwords you have requested be saved,etc.

5.1.2. There are ways to limit some of the information that websites receive when you visit them. Many browsers let you control your privacy preferences on a site-by-site basis and make your own choices about specific data such as cookies, JavaScript, and plugins.

6. Malware, Phishing and Security Risks

6.1. Malware

6.1.1. a software that is meant to damage or disable computers or computer programs, usually without your knowledge. You may be asked to download an anti-virus software that is actually a virus itself. Or you may visit a page that installs software on your computer without even asking. The software is really designed to steal credit card numbers or passwords from your computer, or in some cases, harm your computer

6.2. Phishing

6.2.1. phishing scams are messages that attempt to trick you into entering your personal data. This can be done through fake websites and many other ways. It’s called “phishing” because the bad guys throw out electronic bait and wait for someone to bite.

6.3. These attacks are perpetrated by individuals or organizations who hope to steal your personal information or hijack your computer.

7. IP Address and DNS

7.1. IP Address (Internet Protocol)

7.1.1. IP Addresses are in the format of nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where nnn must be a number from 0-225. An IP address can tell us where a particular device is on the internet network. This is done by hardwiring the network software to follow a list of network standards and rules (protocols) to connect to the Internet, and swap data and information back and forth. Basically allows one computer to talk to another computer via the Internet through compiling packets of data and sending them to right location.

7.2. DNS (Domain Name Server)

7.2.1. DNS are the Internet's equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This is necessary because, although domain names are easy for people to remember, computers or machines, access websites based on IP addresses. Basically a DNS translates a URL into an IP address so that you may acquire the information you are looking for.

8. Validating Identities online

8.1. Extended Validation Certificate

8.1.1. This allows you to determine the name of the business whose website you are on. It gives you the information needed to help make sure that you’re not trusting your information to a fake website. If a website is valid the name will be displayed in a green box between the lock icon and the web address in the address bar.

8.1.2. To receive extended validation, a website owner has to pass a series of checks confirming their legal identity and authority

9. Evolving to a Faster Web

9.1. Outstounding Facts

9.1.1. 65% of the information on a average website is photos and images computer scientists found ways to compress image and photo files into smaller files that could be sent and downloaded more easily. Google has come up with a promising image format that reduces the average image file size by 39%, all while having great resolution and quality.

9.1.2. Every minute 35 hours of videos are uploaded to youtube

9.1.3. Programs such as Javascript have increased from a few lines to several hundred kilobytes of source code A core part of any modern browser are the engines that run Javascript. These engines have been improved to process code faster than before

10. Review

10.1. For many of us, our whole life is on our computer. We keep our images on the cloud along with personal information so that if something were to happen, we can easily access those things from another internet connected device.

10.2. we do daily tasks online (such as check email, chat with friends, etc) with web-based applications right in the browser. Web apps let us do that from a variety of locations around the world, even if we left our laptops at home.

10.3. With HTML5 available to web app developers they will be able to create the next generation of truly inventive web applications

10.4. All of what we do on our computers is possible due to HTML, Javascript and CSS along with browser plug-ins

10.5. Modern browser help keep our computers safe against malware and phishing.

10.6. Open source is truwly a gift, it has given us better browsers. faster web apps andso much more.

10.7. knowing how to keep yourself protected on the internet is very important. Make sure to check if URLs are safe to enter and not to give any personal information to web sites if you are unsure.

11. What is the Internet?

11.1. TCP/IP

11.1.1. Allow computers to "talk" to one another through a set of communication rules

11.2. Packets

11.2.1. data that is split into chunks

11.3. Bandwidth

11.3.1. The amount of data that can be sent over your internet connection per second

12. Cloud Computing

12.1. "The Cloud"

12.1.1. "The Cloud" is the place where our data is stored. The cloud stores all your data safely even after an accident. Your data stays on the web, and can be accesed from any Internet-connected computer, anywhere in the world.

13. Web Apps

13.1. Applications, Programs or Software

13.1.1. Designed to do straightforward, comprehensive tasks like accounting or word processing. Web apps are run inside a web browser and often provide a elegant, participative experience. Google Maps is a good example of a web app. It’s focused on one task: providing helpful map features within a web browser

13.2. The Four Virtues of Web Happiness:

13.2.1. 1, Access data from anywhere In the world of web apps, email and all data is stored online on the web. It can be accessed from a web browser on any device that's connected to the internet

13.2.2. 2.Always get the latest version of apps they update themselves automatically, therefore you will always have the latest version available.

13.2.3. 3.Works on any device with a web browser it can be accessed by anyone on a browser on any device that is connected to the web, no matter the device.

13.2.4. 4. It's safer they run in the browser, therefore you will never have to download them onto your device. They can not interfere with other tasks on your computer. They can not do this because there is a separation between the app code and your device's code. This means that you're better protected from threats like viruses, malware and spyware.


14.1. HTML

14.1.1. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) provides the basics of the web.

14.2. Javascript

14.2.1. Javascript is used for programming languages on the internet. Javascript runs in the browser and will automatically obtain your visitor's browser and execute it on his/her computer.

14.3. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)

14.3.1. CSS lets you control the appearance of your web page you. You can chose what you would like displayed on your front page, the size of your text, etc.

15. HTML5

15.1. What kinds of features and applications would we, as users, find fun, useful or even indispensable?

15.1.1. Gives web designers and developers the ability to create new, fascinating online applications. HTML 5 also offers offline connection that allows users to interact with web apps even when they don’t have internet. I also offers drag-and-drop capabilities. In Gmail, for instance, easy drag-and-drop allows users to instantly attach a file to an email message by simply dragging the file from the user’s desktop computer into the browser window.

16. 3D In the Browser

16.1. Browser-based 3D

16.1.1. Modern broadband helped solve bandwidth needs. Broadband speeds shrink the connections. As a result, it’s possible to send large amounts of data over the Internet — data that is needed to display realistic 3D experiences in the browser.

16.2. WebGL and 3D CSS

16.2.1. With these technologies, web developers can create cool 3D effects for their web applications, and we can experience them without needing additional plug-ins.

16.3. Hardware-acceleration

16.3.1. This means that the browser can use the Graphics Processing Unit, or GPU, to speed up the computations needed to display both 3D and everyday 2D web content.

16.4. Why is This a Big Deal?

16.4.1. now it joins HTML5, JavaScript and other cool new technologies in the toolkit that web developers can use to create a new generation of web applications. For us this means great new ways to see information we find helpful/useful and more fun online. 3D in the browser comes with all the greatness of web apps: you can share, collaborate, and personalize the latest apps with friends all over the world.

17. A Browser Madrigal

17.1. Why Upgrading to a Modern Browser is Beneficial

17.1.1. 1. Old browsers are vulnerable to attacks, because they typically aren’t updated with the latest security fixes and features. Browser vulnerabilities can lead to stolen passwords, malicious software snuck secretly onto your computer, or worse. An up-to-date browser helps guard against security threats like phishing and malware.

17.1.2. 2. The web evolves quickly. Many of the latest features on today’s websites and web applications won't work with old browsers. Only up-to-date browsers have the speed improvements that let you run web pages and applications quickly, along with support for modern web technologies such as HTML5, CSS3, and fast JavaScript.

17.1.3. 3. Old browsers slow down innovation on the web. If lots of Internet users cling to old browsers, web developers are forced to design websites that work with both old and new technologies. Facing limited time and resources, they end up developing for the lowest common denominator — and not building the next generation of useful, groundbreaking web applications. (Imagine if today’s highway engineers were required to design high-speed freeways that would still be perfectly safe for a Model T.) That’s why outdated browsers are bad for users overall and bad for innovation on the web.

18. Plug Ins

18.1. Plug-ins were invented to deliver more interactive content. A plug-in is an additional piece of software that specializes in processing particular types of content. For example, users may download and install a plug-in like Adobe Flash Player to view a web page which contains a video or an interactive game.

18.2. plug-ins are free to operate inside that space, independent of the browser. This means that a particular plug-in can work across many unique browsers. However, since they appear everywhere and are very common this makes plug-ins prime targets for browser security attacks. Your computer is even more vulnerable to security attacks if you’re running plug-ins that aren't up to date, because out-of-date plug-ins don’t have the latest security fixes that will protect your device.

19. Browser Extensions

19.1. Browser extensions let you add new features to your browser, therfore extending your browser. Think of extensions as ways of adding new superpowers to what the browser can already do.

19.2. Today, most browsers let developers write extensions in basic programming languages such as HTML, JavaScript and CSS. These are the same languages used to build most modern web apps and web pages. They’re faster and easier to build, safer, and advance along with the web standards they’re built upon.

20. Synchronizing the Browser

20.1. Sync lets you save your browser settings online, in the cloud, so they aren’t lost even if your computer melts down.

20.1.1. In Chrome, for example, sync saves all bookmarks, extensions, preferences and themes to your Google Account. Use any other Internet-connected computer, and all you need to do is fire up Chrome and login to your Google Account through the browser’s sync feature. All your favorite browser settings are ready to use on the new machine.

20.2. Regardless of how many computers you need, as long as you have an Internet connection and a modern browser that’s synced to the cloud, you have access to all of the stuff on your cloud