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Biology by Mind Map: Biology
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Biology

Chapter11: DNA and Genes

DNA: The Molecule of Herediy

What is DNA?, DNA as Genetic Material, The Structure of Nucleode, The Structure of DNA, The Importance of Nucleotide Sequence

Replication of DNA, How DNA Replicates

From DNA to Protein

Genes and Protein

RNA

Transcription

RNA Processing

The Genetic Code

Translation: From mRNA to Protein, The Role of TransferRNA, Translating the mRNA code

Genetic Changes

Mutation, Mutations in reproductive Cells, Mutations in Body Cells, The Effect of Point Mutations, Frameshift Mutations

Chromosomal Mutation

Causes of Mutation, Repairing DNA

Chapter7 :A view of the Cell

The Discovery of Cells

The History of the Cell Theory, Light Microscopes, The Cell Theory, Electron Microscopes

Two Basic Cell Types

The Plasma Membrane

Maintaining a Balance, Why Cells must control material

The Structure of the Plasma Membrane, The phospholipid bilayer, Other Components of the Plasma Membrane

Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Cellular Boundries, The Cell Wall

The Nucleus and Cell Control

Assembly, Transport and Storage, Organelles for assembly and transport of proteins, Vacuoles and storage, Lysomes and recycling

Energy Transformers, Chloroplasts and energy, Mitochondria and energy

Organelles for Support and Locomotion, The Cytoskeleton, Centrioles, Cilia and Flagella

Chapter8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle

Cellular Transport

Osmosis: Diffusion of Water, What controls osmosis?, Cells in an isotonic solution, Cells in a Hypertonic Solution, Cells in a hypotonic solution

Passive Transport, Passive transport by proteins

Active Transport, How active transport occurs

Transport of large particles

Cell Growth and Reproduction

Cell size Limitations, Diffusion limits cell size, DNA limits cell size, Surface area to volume ratio

Cell Reproduction, The discovery of chromosomes, The structure of eukaryotic chromosomes

The Cell Cycle, Chromosome Structure

Interphase: a busy phase

The Phases of Mitosis, Prophase: The first phase, Metaphase: The second phase, Anaphase: The third phase, Telophase: The fourth phase

Cytokinesis

Results of Mitosis

Control of the Cell Cycle

Normal Control of the Cell Cycle, Proteins and enzymes control the Cell Cycle

Cancer: a mistake in the cell cycle, The causes of cancer, cancer prevention

Chapter9: Energy in a Cell

The Need for Energy

Cell Energy, Work and the need for energy

Forming and Breaking Down ATP, How cells tap into the energy stored in ATP

The Uses of Cell Energy

Photosynthesis: Trapping the Sun's Energy

Trapping Energy from Sunlight, The chloroplasts and pigments

Light Dependant Reactions, Restoring Electrons

Light Independent Reactions, The Calvin Cycle

Getting Energy to make ATP

Cellular Respiration, Glycolysis, The Citric Acid Cycle, The electron transport chain

Fermentation, Lactic acid fermentation, Alcoholic Fermentation

Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics

Mendelian Inheritance of Human Traits

Making a Pedigree, Pedigrees Illustrate inheritance, Analyzing a pedigree

Simply Dominant Heredity, Simple dominant traits, Huntington's disease

Simple Recessive Heredity, Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, Phenylketouria

When Heredity follows Different Rules

Complex Inheritance of Human Traits

Chapter10: Mendel Meiosis

Mendel's Law of Heredity

Why Mendel Succeeded, Mendel chose his subject carefully, Mendel was a careful researcher

Mendel's Monohybrid Crosses, The First Generation, The Second Generation, The rule of unit factors, The rule of dominace, The law of segregation

Mendel's Dihybrid Crosses, The first generation, The second generation, The law of independent assortment

Punnett Squares, Monohybrid crosses, Dihybrid Crosses

Phenotypes and Genotypes

Probability

Meiosis

Genes, Chromosomes, and Numbers, Diploid and Haploid cells, Homologous Chromosomes, Why Meiosis?

Meiosis Provides for Genetic Variation, Genetic recombination, Meiosis explains Mendel's results

Nondisjuction, Chromosome Mapping, Polyploidy

Gene Linkage and Maps

The Phases of Meiosis, Interphase, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, The phases of meiosis II