Chapter 13 Assessing Student Learning

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Chapter 13 Assessing Student Learning by Mind Map: Chapter 13 Assessing Student Learning

1. Instructional Objectives

1.1. Planing Lesson Objectives

1.1.1. Write specific objectives

1.1.1.1. condition + perfomance + citerion

1.1.2. Task Analysis - analyze required tasks

1.1.2.1. identify prerequisite skill

1.1.2.2. Identify component skills

1.1.2.3. Plan how components fold into final skill

1.1.3. use backward planning

1.1.3.1. align objectives with assessment

1.2. Learning Objective

1.2.1. Def: specific behaviors students expected to exhibit at the end of a series of sessons

1.3. Instructional or Behavioral Objective

1.3.1. Def: a statement of skills or concepts a student are expected to know at the end of some period of instruction

1.3.2. Behavioral Objective Statement

1.3.2.1. Conditions

1.3.2.1.1. Under what conditions should the learned be able to do it

1.3.2.2. Perfomance

1.3.2.2.1. what should leaser be able to do

1.3.2.3. Criterion

1.3.2.3.1. How well must it be done

1.4. Teaching Objectives

1.4.1. Def: clear statements of what students are expected to learn through instruction, clarified with specific Learning Objectives

1.5. Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives

1.5.1. Blooms' Taxonomy

1.5.1.1. Organizes types of learnings from simple to complex cognitive levels

1.5.1.1.1. Knowledge

1.5.1.1.2. Conprehension

1.5.1.1.3. Application

1.5.1.1.4. Analysis

1.5.1.1.5. Synthesis

1.5.1.1.6. Evaluaiton

1.5.2. Behavioral Content Matrix

1.5.2.1. Def: Chart showing how a particular concept or skill will be taught and assessed at different cognitive levels

2. How is Student Learning Evaluated

2.1. Formative & Summative Evaluations

2.1.1. Formative Evaluation: how well are you doing or can do better

2.1.1.1. Tells teachers where additional instruction is needed

2.1.1.2. Tells students where additional learning is needed

2.1.1.3. Given during instructional units

2.1.2. Summative Evaluation: how well did you do

2.1.2.1. Given at the end of instructional units

2.2. Norm-Refrenced & Criterion Referenced Evaluations

2.2.1. Norm-Refrenced interpretation - compares students to other students

2.2.2. Criterion Referenced interpretations - assess student's mastery of specific skills

2.3. Align evaluation strategies with goals

2.3.1. Test grades are infrequent and often poor motivators for high and low achievers

2.3.2. Supplement tests with frequent quizzes, graded imediatly for feedback plus grade or recognition

3. Why Evaluation is Important

3.1. Definition: all the means used to formally measure student achievement - academic, behavior, & attitudes

3.2. Provides

3.2.1. Feedback to students & teachers

3.2.2. Information to parents, for selection, & accountability

3.2.3. Incentives for student performance

4. Constructing Tests

4.1. Achievement Testing

4.1.1. critical skill for effective teaching

4.1.2. Six Principles for Preparing a Test

4.1.2.1. 1. Should measure clearly defined learning objectives that align with instructional objectives

4.1.2.2. 2. Measure a representative sample of learning tasks included in the instruction

4.1.2.3. 3. Include items most appropriate for measuring the desired learning outcomes

4.1.2.4. 4. Align with how the results will be used

4.1.2.5. 5. Should be reliable as possible, but interpreted with caution

4.1.2.5.1. Always some error , no matter how well written, student shave good & bad days, some test well some don't

4.1.2.6. 6. Should improve learning

4.1.2.6.1. Use results to guide instruction, analyze student understanding, set pace of instruction

4.2. Making Assessment Fair

4.2.1. Writing - avoid contexts that favor one group, should avoid tricks or rewarding for guessing or bluffing

4.2.2. Assessment - all students should have equal opportunity to learn the material, be failure with format used on the assessment, reared quality not speed

4.2.3. Scoring - rubric should award full credit for an answer that responds to the question, not for going beyond what the question asked

4.2.4. Interpreting Assessments - base grades on summative assessments, not formative assessments, use multiple formats so students w/different learning styles are not disadvantaged

4.3. Table of Specifications

4.3.1. First step in writing a test

4.3.2. Ensures the test, is testing the objectives laid out in the behavioral context matrix

4.4. Writing Test Quesitons

4.4.1. Selected Response Items

4.4.1.1. Def: questions that can be scored correct or incorrect without interpretation

4.4.1.2. Multiple Choice Test

4.4.1.2.1. Most flexible of all test forms, can be used in most subject areas

4.4.1.2.2. Goals when writing

4.4.1.3. True - False

4.4.1.3.1. Should be avoided, 50/50 chance of guessing correctly

4.4.1.4. Matching Items

4.4.1.4.1. Test recall

4.4.1.4.2. Can cover a large amount of content

4.4.1.4.3. Having an unequal number of times in the two lists helps prevent guessing by elimination

4.4.2. Constructed Response Items

4.4.2.1. Require student to supply rather than select the correct answer, typically fill in the blank format

4.4.3. Essays - short & Long

4.4.3.1. Essay questions should

4.4.3.1.1. clearly specify the approximate detail required in the response

4.4.3.1.2. the expected length

4.4.3.1.3. the specific information to be addressed

4.4.3.2. Disadvantage of essays

4.4.3.2.1. Students can feel they are subjective, different instructors can grade the same essay differently

4.4.3.2.2. Essays take considerable time to grade

4.4.3.2.3. Tak considerable time for student to write

4.4.3.3. Advantage of essays

4.4.3.3.1. Are not susceptible to guessing

4.4.3.3.2. suited to asses students ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate

4.4.3.4. Grading essays

4.4.3.4.1. clearly specify the content to be include in the response so you have a clear idea how you will score the student's response

4.4.3.4.2. Create a model response or an outline of one

4.4.3.4.3. Best practice, have colleague asses model response, and apply to several students work

4.4.3.4.4. Use generic rubric that can be applied to a broad range of essays

4.4.3.4.5. If assessing grammar, spelling, etc, bet to score sperately

4.5. Writing and Evaluating Problem Solving Items

4.5.1. Often used in math, physical & social sciences

4.5.2. require students to organize, select, & apply complex procedures that have several important steps or components

4.5.3. Important to praise work in each component

4.5.4. As with short essays, construct a mode response or outline

4.5.4.1. Must be flexible and accommodate every possible response

4.6. Peer Evaluations

4.6.1. Often used in cooperative learning

4.6.2. provides student with formative feedback to revise work

4.6.3. Gives evaluator insight into teacher'sperspectiv and insights into good writing

5. Alternative Forms of Assessment

5.1. Authentic Assessments or Performance Assessments

5.1.1. require students to do something real with their knowledge or combine knowledge across domaines i.e. use algebra in a science context

5.1.1.1. Advantage: is that allows teachers to teach a broader range of skills then with traditional test

5.1.1.2. Disadvantages: no evidence they are any better than traditional test

5.1.1.3. Generally assessed using rubrics

5.2. Portfolio Assessments

5.2.1. uses a collection of a student's work to asses progress over time

5.3. Digital Games and Simulations

5.3.1. still very new

5.3.2. Potential to allow assessment while students are engaged in the activity

6. Grading

6.1. Letter Grades

6.1.1. Absolute Grading Standards

6.1.1.1. Def: uses pre-established percentage scores for a given letter grade

6.1.1.2. Criterion referenced grading

6.1.1.2.1. Def: variation of absolute grading standards where teacher determines what performance constitutes a grade

6.1.1.3. Disadvantages

6.1.1.3.1. scores vary based on the difficulty of the tests given

6.1.1.3.2. Wide range that constitutes an F, student could be close to a D or hopelessly behind

6.1.2. Relative Grading Standrds

6.1.2.1. Def: grades signed based on students relative rank with their class or grade

6.1.2.2. Also know as grading on a curve

6.1.2.3. Disadvantages

6.1.2.3.1. Harder to get an A or B in a high performing class than a low one

6.1.2.3.2. Creates competition among students

6.1.2.4. Disappearing due to grade inflation, B has replaced C as signifing basic competence

6.1.3. Disadvantages of Traditonal Grading

6.1.3.1. Provide indication of how student is doing relative to class mates

6.1.3.2. Don't tell what a student can do, needs to do to improve, or indicate strengths or weknesses

6.2. Perfomance Grading

6.2.1. focuses on a student's mastery of proficiencies

6.2.2. Usually based on a portfolio approach using a rubric

6.3. Alternative Forms go Grading

6.3.1. Contract Grading

6.3.1.1. Stundet agrees to complete a certain amount of work or achieve a performance level to receive a certain grade

6.3.2. Mastery Grading

6.3.2.1. Student who doe snot achieve a specified level of competency receives additional instruction and retake the teas

6.3.3. Retaking Test

6.3.3.1. Students are allowed to study and retake a new version of the test, often with a penalty assigned to the new grade since they had more time to study

6.3.4. Provide grades based on improvemt

6.4. Report Card Grades

6.4.1. Types listed from most formal and reliable to most informal and and leas valid as a learning indicator

6.4.1.1. Scores on quizzes and tests

6.4.1.2. Scores on papers and projects

6.4.1.3. Scores on Homework

6.4.1.4. Scores on seatwork

6.4.1.5. Class participation

6.4.1.6. Deportment

6.4.1.7. Effort

6.4.2. Approaches to dealing with missing work

6.4.2.1. a zero can have devistating impact on grading

6.4.2.1.1. some schools assign a D, or use letter to point conversion for final grade

6.4.3. Key Principles for Report Cards

6.4.3.1. grade should not come as a surprise to the student

6.4.3.2. Interim or mid term grades give students an indication of how they are doing

6.4.3.3. Grades should be private