Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Summative

1.1. Definition: Assessment at the end of a unit used to demonstrate students' knowledge and skills on the topic while being evaluated against standards and benchmarks (Renard, 2017)

1.1.1. Purpose: Evaluate student's learning at the end of the instructional unit while comparing it against a standard or benchmark (Renard, 2017) Advantages: - Allows students to demonstrate their learning and enforce it - Allows students to learn from one another's assessments (presentations, projects) - Allows students to feel ownership and pride in their learning and work - Opportunity for reward (grade, encouragement) Disadvantages: - Puts a lot of pressure on students if they did not understand part of the unit - Doesn't allow for reteaching since it is at the end of the unit - Does not demonstrate learning path For or Of: Of Learning: Assessment demonstrates what students learned in the unit in a final product, does not demonstrate how they learning, just what they learned Example: - Midterm Exam - Unit Test - Writing Assignment or Reading Project - Presentation

2. Performance-based

2.1. Definition: A task that challenges students to use their higher-order thinking skills to create a product of complete a process (Hilliard, 2015)

2.1.1. Purpose: To measure students' ability to apply the skills and knowledge learned from a unit or units of study (Hilliard, 2015) Advantages: - Allows students to showcase understanding and learning - Allows students to learn or reinforce learning through doing - Assignments can be authentic and meaningful to the students (Hibbard et al., 1996) Disadvantages: - Time consuming and labor intensive (can take more time than needed to master a new skill) - Must be carefully designed to promote accurate student outcome - Assessment is subjective based on the standards (Luisgodoy, 2012) For or Of: Of or For Learning: Measures certain course standards against a students learning and understanding of the topic (Of) or progress through assignment taught throughout the unit can easily demonstrate the students' understanding and allow teacher to reteach or differentiate instruction Example: - Scenario-based critical thinking assignment and presentation - Collaborate assignment with a group - Individual projects

3. High-Stakes

3.1. Definition: Any assessment or test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts to hold them accountable for student ability (Edglossary, 2014)

3.1.1. Purpose: To ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers (Edglossary, 2014) Advantages: - Provides advancement or compensation to well performing schools - Holds teachers accountable - Can motivate students to work harder, learn more, and take tests more seriously, promote higher achievement - Reveals areas of education that need reform (Edglossary, 2014) Disadvantages: - Often distributes punishments is standards are not met instead of guidance - Forces teachers to "teach to the test" and focus only on topics that are most likely to be tested - Promotes more "narrow" academic programs in schools - Creates a lot of stress on teachers and students which hinders their growth and development through learning (Edglossary, 2014) For or Of: Of Learning: Assesses what students have learned and can apply to a standardized test For Learning: Can continue to educational reform Example: - Standardized written tests with different sections (SATs - USE, GCSEs - England, EQAO - Ontario)

4. Authentic

4.1. Definition: Assessment that focuses on students' analytical skills, ability to integrate what they learn, creativity, ability to work collaboratively, and written and oral expression skills in the learning process and finished product (Teacher Vision, 2017)

4.1.1. Purpose: Assess students' abilities in 'real-world' contexts (Teacher Vision, 2017) Advantages: - Allows higher-order thinking skills - Allows for self editing and reflection - Promotes creativity and collaboration (among other 21st century skills) - Creates ownership of final product Disadvantages: - Time consuming and labor intensive (can take longer than needed to master the skill) - Must be carefully designed to promote accurate student outcome - Students may focus on aspect of material they already understand rather than challenging themselves to master new material For of Of: For Learning: Allows students to demonstrate their abilities and move at their own pace while taking ownership of their knowledge Example: - Science experiments - Conduct surveys for social science research - Write stories and reports - Read and interpret Literature (Teacher Vision, 2017)

5. Peer-Assessment

5.1. Definition: Students take responsibility for assessing the work of their peers against set assessment criteria (University of Reeding, 2017)

5.1.1. Purpose: Students act as assessors and gain an opportunity to better understand assessment criteria (University of Reeding, 2017) Advantages: - Students gain a better understanding of assessment criteria - Students have opportunity to improve their work before being graded - Transfers ownership of the assessment process to students Disadvantages: - Process is only as beneficial if your assessor is effective - Students can unknowingly misguide their classmates if they don't understand the rubric - May create anxiety from some students who do not want their work shared with others For or Of: For Learning: Allows students to gain insight from others and improve their work before being graded Example: - Peer editing/revision - Peer scoring and feedback

6. References Education Reform (2014). High-Stakes Test. Retrieved from Hibbard, Michael K., et al. (1996). Teacher's Guide to Performance-Based Learning and Assessment, Retrieved from:,_and_Why_is_it_Important%C2%A2.aspx. Hilliard, Patricia (2015). Performace-Based Assessment: Reviewing the Basics. Edutopia. Retrieved from: Its Learning (2015). Portfolio Assessment. Retrieved from: Luisagodoy, (2012). Performance based-assessment. Slide Share. Retrieved from Renard, Lucie (2017). The differences between formative and summative assessment - Infographic. Book Widgets. Retrieved from: (2016). What is Diagnostic Assessment? - Definition & Examples. Retrieved from: Teacher Vision (2017). Authentic Assessment Overview. Retrieved from: Teaching Commons (2017). Student Self-Assessment. Retrieved from: University of Reading (2017). Engage in Assessment. Retrieved from:

7. Diagnostic

7.1. Definition: Form of pre-assessment that allows a teacher to determine students' individual strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills prior to instruction (, 2016)

7.1.1. Purpose: Diagnose student difficulties and to guide lesson and curriculum planning (, 2016) Advantages: - Allows teachers to plan meaningful and beneficial instructors based on students needs - Allows teachers to differentiate instruction based on student understanding of the topic (, 2016) - Cuts down on student frustration and boredom Disadvantages: - Teachers may focus too much on students weaknesses and how to develop them rather than differentiating instruction and setting new goals - Assessment needs to be effectively organized for proper analysis For or Of: For Learning: Teachers assess student abilities to plan their lessons and curriculum tailored to the students' needs Example: - Student survey - Student entrance quiz or pre-test on prior knowledge - Beginning of year project to showcase previous knowledge

8. Formative

8.1. Definition: Short, ongoing assessments to evaluate student learning and progress to ensure understanding and progress through a unit

8.1.1. Purpose: Monitor students' learning and provide them with ongoing feedback which can be used by instructors to improve teaching methods directed as students' learning paths to improve their learning (Renard, 2017) Advantages: - Allows for evaluation during the learning process to ensure all students are understanding and not wasting their time (Renard, 2017) - Include little content and short amount of time to complete Disadvantages: - Students may be able to master formative assessment without having a deep understanding of the material that will benefit their learning - Can leave students who excel with less of a challenge if the class is aimed at ensuring lower level students meet formative assessments and reteaching occurs often For of Of: For Learning (ongoing method to provide teacher of how they are learning the material during the unit so the teacher can provide guidance and reteach anything that is not understood. Examples: - Classroom Polls - Comprehension Questions - Brainstorms - Exit Tickets - Multiple Choice Quiz

9. Portfolio

9.1. Definition: Assessment for that learners do together with their teachers containing sample of their work ( )

9.1.1. Purpose: Show growth, progress, and student learning over time Advantages: -Learners identify strengths and weaknesses of their own work - Can use this to formulate learning and improvement goals - Quality counts, not quantity (Its Learning, 2015) Disadvantages: - Areas of misunderstanding may be difficult to catch - Students may focus on their current strengths and avoid challenging themselves and gaining new skills For or Of: For and Of Learning: Assessment of progress in work will allow learners to set new learning goals (for), and demonstration of understanding through projects (of) Example: - ePortfolio - Binder of assignments completed - Collection of work in portfolio

10. Self-Assessment

10.1. Definition: Students evaluate their own work and learning progress Teaching Commons, 2017)

10.1.1. Purpose: Students can identify their own skill gaps, where their knowledge is weak and where they can focus their attention on learning (Teaching Commons, 2017) Advantages: - Students stay involved and motivated - Encourages self-reflection and responsibility for their learning - Allows students to track their own progress (Teaching Commons, 2017) Disadvantages: - May encourage students to focus on aspects that they're successful at and avoid challenges - Does not allow for outside (peer or teacher) assessment on its own - Could create insecurities if learning is a challenge For or Of: For Learning: Students assess themselves to see where they are on their learning path and where they should go next while learning Example: - Complete a reflection form - Use of graphic organizers - Reflection questions/journal