Teaching, Learning and Development 2

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Teaching, Learning and Development 2 by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development 2

1. Week 1

1.1. Chapter 1: Planning the Upcoming Year

1.1.1. 4 commonplaces of school

1.1.1.1. student

1.1.1.2. teacher

1.1.1.3. topic

1.1.1.4. setting

1.1.2. Reflective Practice

1.1.2.1. engaging and reflecting upon one's own teaching and how it can be improved

1.1.2.2. assessing current research and implementing noteworthy findings

1.1.3. Educational Research

1.1.3.1. academic research

1.1.3.1.1. how research is implemented in the classroom

1.1.3.2. personal working experience

1.1.4. Planning

1.1.4.1. curricular planning: planning to teach the curriculum

1.1.4.1.1. curriculum

1.1.4.1.2. top-down approach

1.1.4.2. instructional planning: planning to teach each student

1.1.4.2.1. diagnostic assessments

1.1.4.2.2. other ways of discovering information about student's learning via OSR, past IEPs,

1.1.5. Student-centred vs. teacher centred

1.1.5.1. student-centred

1.1.5.1.1. constructivist

1.1.5.2. teacher-centred

1.1.5.2.1. direct instruction

1.1.5.2.2. good for building specific skills like handwriting

1.1.5.2.3. teacher "doing" teaching, modelling proper procedures and depositing knowledge in learners

1.2. Learners in the Drivers Seat

1.2.1. problem facing teacher: tend to reflect their own relationship with administration in the relationship they build with student

1.2.2. problem facing pedagogy: teacher-centred practices may foster dependency

1.3. TedTalk: What is School For?

1.3.1. previously: assembly line education -making factory workers

1.3.1.1. productivity

1.3.1.2. knowledge=memorizing

1.3.1.3. conformity

1.3.2. now: individualized education

1.3.2.1. nurturing creativity

1.3.2.2. knowing= experience

2. Weeks 2 & 3: get to know your students

2.1. Chapter 2: Development

2.1.1. developmental differences

2.1.1.1. interpersonal differences

2.1.1.1.1. development affects all kids at all ages in different ways

2.1.1.1.2. kids develop at different rates so a room full of same-age students can be extremely varied in terms of their development

2.1.1.1.3. development depends on timing - age triggers much development

2.1.1.2. intrapersonal differences

2.1.1.2.1. physical development

2.1.1.2.2. theories of cognitive development

2.1.1.2.3. social development

2.1.2. 5 guiding principles of development for teachers

2.1.2.1. 1. Teachers must teach each topic in its respective learning progression 2. Teachers must give time and practice to let students fully understand concepts. 3. Teachers must teach students learning strategies as well 4.Teachers must appreciate different rates of development among students 5. As part of a student's environment, a teacher must be cognizant that they help determine how much of the student's genetic potential can be realized.

2.2. Growth Mindset (Dweck)

2.2.1. brain is a 'muscle' that adapts

2.2.1.1. willingness to fail; mastery requires failure

2.2.1.1.1. students should be praised on effort to encourage more attempts at failure

2.2.1.2. requires a positive mindset/ resiliency

2.3. Limitless Childhood (Svitorak)

2.3.1. yerkes-dodson law

2.3.1.1. a lesson too boring or too stressful decreases motivation and learning

2.3.2. kids are unhampered by cynicism and pragmatism

3. Week 4

3.1. Chapter 3: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

3.1.1. classroom management

3.1.1.1. classroom environment

3.1.1.1.1. personal touch: warmth, creativity

3.1.1.1.2. varied setting

3.1.1.1.3. provides a secure place where student can feel like they belong and where they feel they have a say

3.1.1.2. classroom expectations

3.1.1.2.1. expectations and routines

3.1.1.2.2. minimizing misbehaviour

3.2. Wagner: Most Likely to Succeed

3.2.1. the kinds of kids who are most likely to succeed master soft skills over mastering rote memorization

3.3. Myth of the Average

3.3.1. classroom environments and strategies must be as flexible as possible to accommodate every exceptionality

3.3.1.1. nurture individual potential

3.3.1.2. integrate technology to make flexible environments

4. Week 5: "necessary for some, beneficial for all"

4.1. Chapter 4: Making Instructional Decisions

4.1.1. Designing instruction

4.1.1.1. diagnostic assessments

4.1.1.1.1. to better tailor instruction to students' learning styles, strengths and weaknesses

4.1.1.2. backward design

4.1.1.2.1. method of lesson design that integrates assessment within the lesson

4.1.1.2.2. planning lesson by starting with the learning objective in mind and working backwards from that

4.1.1.3. Universal instructional design

4.1.1.3.1. philosophy that claims that designing lessons for the least independent thinkers is more accessible to all

4.1.1.3.2. inclusive, respectful, diverse

4.1.1.4. theoretical bases

4.1.1.4.1. cognitive strategies

4.1.1.4.2. select-organize-integrate

4.1.1.5. motivational underpinnings

4.1.1.5.1. classroom tasks

4.1.1.5.2. instructional practices

4.1.1.5.3. classroom relationships

4.1.1.5.4. intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation

4.1.1.5.5. how people learn framework (HPL)

4.1.1.6. instructional methods

4.1.1.6.1. Direct instruction

4.1.1.6.2. Student Problem solving

4.1.1.7. avoiding information overload

4.1.1.7.1. students need time to consolidate learning, lest their working memory be oversaturated

4.1.1.7.2. this is compounded by attempts to make learning easier which remove critical thinking aspects to it

4.2. Universal Design for Learning

4.2.1. Principle 1

4.2.1.1. to make resourceful, knowledgeable learners

4.2.1.2. providing information in multiple ways to ensure different learners all receive it equally

4.2.1.2.1. differentiated instruction: all students have access to the same content in a variety of different modalities

4.2.1.3. making sure that information is not only perceptible but assimilated

4.2.1.3.1. requires teaching learning strategies to transform accessible information into useable knowledge

4.2.2. Principle 2

4.2.2.1. to make strategic, goal-directed learners

4.2.2.2. provide multiple means to act upon knowledge (i.e. reflection, expression and production of information) and interact with information

4.2.2.3. helping students prioritize action on information by helping refine their cognitive function

4.2.3. Principle 3

4.2.3.1. to make motivated and purposeful learners

4.2.3.2. provide opportunity for choice and autonomy

4.2.3.3. building self-regulation

4.3. Letting students hack their lesson plan

4.3.1. classroom designed with UDL in mind

4.3.1.1. emphasis on technology "building to the edges"

4.3.1.1.1. classroom had built in speakers so teacher's voice could be heard everywhere

4.3.1.1.2. document camera

4.3.1.1.3. smartboard

4.3.1.1.4. webcam: social studies, multicultural aid

4.3.1.1.5. classroom blog

4.3.1.2. different locations in the classroom serve different purposes

4.3.1.2.1. computer station

4.3.1.2.2. 1 on 1/ small group conference area for direct instruction

4.3.2. constructivist teaching

4.3.2.1. differentiated instruction

4.3.2.2. students created a list of activities they wanted to do at start of year

4.3.2.3. students' presentations also serve as teaching opportunities for the rest of the class

4.3.2.4. kids make their own lesson plans, their own tests

5. Week 6

5.1. Knowing that the Students Know

5.1.1. chapter 5: Assessment

5.1.1.1. value of Homework

5.1.1.1.1. best when option available to finish it in class

5.1.1.1.2. provides opportunities for self-regulation/building work ethic

5.1.1.1.3. allows extra practice for complex concepts

5.1.1.2. Assessment

5.1.1.2.1. Assessment Types

5.1.1.2.2. Assessment Questions

5.1.1.2.3. Test Design

5.1.1.2.4. Assessment Tools

5.1.1.2.5. Strategies

5.1.2. Integrated Learning in the Classroom

5.1.2.1. idea that lessons should be taught by linking two or more disciplines together within units

5.1.2.1.1. correlated with more student engagement and less behavioural problems

5.1.2.1.2. share these characteristics: -an emphasis on backward planning from student needs/interests -a combination of subjects -a focus on relationships among concepts -an emphasis on projects/tasks -flexible scheduling/flexible student groupings -use of authentic sources that go beyond textbooks

5.1.2.2. 3 guidelines

5.1.2.2.1. organize instruction around similar cross-curricular concepts/ learning specifications

5.1.2.2.2. link instruction to real world applications of the knowledge

5.1.2.2.3. think broadly about what constitutes literacy

5.1.3. Understanding by Design

5.1.3.1. teaching for understanding of large transferable concepts/processes within and between units

5.1.3.2. using backward design to plan the teaching of understanding large transferable concepts

6. Week 7

6.1. Chapter 6: Individual Difference: Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

6.1.1. Intelligence

6.1.1.1. intelligence as structure

6.1.1.1.1. gardner's idea that there are 8 different types of intelligences

6.1.1.1.2. research shows there's a lot of connections between the intelligences and that their differences are semantic at best

6.1.1.2. intelligence as process

6.1.1.2.1. Sternberg's three intelligences

6.1.1.3. it's source

6.1.1.3.1. genetically determined, environmentally realized

6.1.2. Special Education

6.1.2.1. all students can be taught: the question is how can they be taught best

6.1.2.1.1. student exceptionality types

6.1.2.2. Inclusion

6.1.2.2.1. philosophy that students who need special education should be included in regular classrooms as much as possible

6.1.2.3. Individual Education Plan

6.1.2.3.1. before the plan is created, teaacher adjusts methods to see if that will help

6.1.2.3.2. if the adjustment doesn't help, student is referred to a school team to draw up IEP

6.1.2.3.3. psycho-educational assessment is performed to create IEP

6.1.2.3.4. teacher create interventions based on IEP

6.1.2.3.5. they then evaluate the intervention and re-assess if unsubstantial

6.1.2.4. Differentiated Learning

6.1.2.4.1. emphasizes the purposeful use of a variety of instructional strategies to properly address students’ diverse learning needs

6.1.3. Types of Student Exceptionalities

6.1.3.1. ADHD

6.1.3.1.1. challenges

6.1.3.1.2. abilities

6.1.3.1.3. their academic problems usually happen due to their self-regulation problems and not due to cognitive deficits

6.1.3.2. Autism

6.1.3.2.1. abilities

6.1.3.2.2. challenges

6.1.3.2.3. instructional approaches

6.1.3.3. gifted

6.1.3.3.1. abilities

6.1.3.3.2. challenges

6.1.3.3.3. instructional approaches

6.1.3.4. mild intellectual disability

6.1.3.4.1. 4 types classified by IQ score, from 70 to lower and by the amount of general support they require

6.1.3.5. specific learning disorders

6.1.3.5.1. 50-70% of student population; simply a deficit in a single domain

6.1.3.5.2. instructional approaches

6.1.3.6. Learning for all

6.1.3.6.1. Differentiated Instruction

6.1.3.6.2. tiered approach

7. Week 8

7.1. Chapter 7: Socio-Cultural Considerations

7.1.1. different cultures have different learning expectations and priorities

7.1.1.1. these are not immediately apparent and require establishing a relationship to delve through which one can delve into inquiry

7.1.2. Diverse populations

7.1.2.1. differences should be celebrated and shared so everyone can have a glimpse through that perspective

7.1.2.2. upholds democratic ideals

7.1.2.3. there's no significant correlation between ethnicities and cognitive ability

7.1.3. dilemmas of diverse perspectives: how to be an individual within a collective entity

7.1.3.1. individuals’ cultural or ethnic identity comes from how they balance their own personal and cultural influences against those exerted by competing social environments.

7.1.3.2. critical consciousness of teachers helps teach diverse population. It is 3 traits

7.1.3.2.1. political values and beliefs

7.1.3.2.2. ideological clarity

7.1.3.2.3. socio-cultural consciousness

7.1.3.2.4. these help teacher question their hegemonic position as an arm of an institution

7.1.3.3. being culturally responsive

7.1.3.3.1. building a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes as students, contexts, and school-subject matters shift to avoid the trap of getting many small pieces of information that may lead to stereotyping. Involves:

7.1.4. Stereotype Threat

7.1.4.1. the fear, existing either in your own eyes or in the eyes of others, that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group

7.1.4.1.1. can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

7.1.4.1.2. students most vulnerable have the strongest ties to their ethnic group

7.1.5. Socio-economic status

7.1.5.1. SES is a powerful predictor in student success

7.1.5.1.1. students with low SES struggle with poverty and lack of access to technology

7.1.5.1.2. also more likely to have authoritarian parents

7.1.5.2. teachers giving extra help to those affected without asking may also help

7.1.5.3. it is important to demonstrate and prove that education is important to their personal growth and to their futures

7.1.5.3.1. Instrumental value is the degree to which individual students believe that doing well in school will produce direct benefits for their lives

7.1.6. Multicultural Education

7.1.6.1. helping students understand how beliefs influence knowledge

7.1.6.2. reducing prejudice

7.1.6.3. teaching to benefit all students

7.1.6.4. creating social structures that support the development and learning of all students.

7.2. Strategies for Diverse Learners

7.2.1. Setting High Expectations

7.2.1.1. challenging but attainable mindset

7.2.2. using culturally relevant instruction

7.2.2.1. Cooperative learning

7.2.2.2. Capitalize on the funds of knowledge in families and the community

7.2.2.3. Instructional conversations

7.2.2.4. Cognitively guided instruction

7.2.2.5. Technology-enriched instruction

7.2.3. Establishment of Caring Relationships

7.2.4. Parent and Community Involvement

7.3. How culture dirves behaviours

7.3.1. cultures give individuals lenses through which they interpret and thereby create reality

7.3.1.1. responsiveness to diverse cultures requires being able to adapt oneself to "put on" lenses of other cultures

7.4. the danger of a single story

7.4.1. allowing oneself hear a single portrayal of a different culture may lead to misinformed stereotypes and prejudices

8. Week 9

8.1. Chapter 8: Standardized Tests

8.1.1. standardized test

8.1.1.1. used to evaluate teacher competencies, conduct large-scale analyses of student abilities, and set performance standards to improve score interpretations

8.1.1.1.1. method to assess accountability of government performance

8.1.1.2. test that contains the same questions for all test-takers; is administered to all individuals in the same fashion, under the same conditions, and within a specified time; and (c) is always scored in a systematic and uniform manner

8.1.1.3. achievement vs. aptitude

8.1.1.3.1. achievement tests: large-scale exams that test performance and may be linked to one's ability to graduate high school or apply to university

8.1.1.3.2. aptitude tests for cognitive, behavioural skills used by psychologists

8.1.1.4. criticisms

8.1.1.4.1. they don't assess 21st century skills a.k.a soft skills

8.1.1.4.2. the stress over "teaching the test" has a negative impact on student learning

8.1.1.4.3. the test is produced for middle-class and white cultural lenses

8.1.1.4.4. is not seen to have a positive impact on learning or motivation

8.1.1.5. ideally:

8.1.1.5.1. should not just test for teacher accountability but for student's cognitive skills and learning mechanisms