Teaching, Learning, and Development Shamila Corless

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Teaching, Learning, and Development Shamila Corless by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, and Development Shamila Corless

1. Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Educational Psychology -Applying psychology to study and improve teaching and learning.

1.1.1. Reflective Practitioners -Flexible and willing to adjust -Strive to find ways to make learning easier and more accessible -Constantly reflect on practice and find ways to improve

1.2. What Needs Planning? -What will be taught and when -How it will be taught and what materials and environment will be necessary

1.2.1. Effective Planning -Results in engaging instruction and students grasping concepts more easily Instructional Approaches -Teacher-centred: Teacher gives content and has students all complete the same assignments -Student-centred: Teacher provides students with opportunity to learn content in their own way

1.2.2. Curricular Planning -Teachers plan lessons while taking into account fitting students’ learning styles in with what must be taught.

1.3. Seth Godin: Stop Stealing Dreams TED Talk video -What is the true purpose of school? -It has changed so many times over the years -In present time, to prepare for the future STOP STEALING DREAMS: Seth Godin at [email protected]

1.4. Connections to my Practice -When I begin my teaching career, I intend to do as much planning as I can during the summer break for lessons. -At the same time, I will also keep in mind that I may need to make some changes to the lessons I plan to meet the needs of my students.

2. Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Review Files -Allow teacher to prepare for the types of students he/she will have while being careful not to jump to conclusions

2.2. Development -Changes (physical, social, cognitive) -Organized learning -Adaptive behaviour

2.2.1. Principles -Orderly and gradual process -Sometimes slow, sometimes quick -Changes (qualitative and quantitative) -Different rate and potential for each person (genetics & environment play role)

2.2.2. Students Having Difficulty -Teacher must find out if student is at same level as peers, learns slower, had enough practice, or has a different learning style

2.2.3. Early Learning -How early a child learns literacy and numeracy will help determine future success in school

2.3. Adora Svitak TED Talk: What Adults Can Learn from Kids -The world needs "childish" thinking such as bold ideas, creativity, and most importantly, optimism What adults can learn from kids - Adora Svitak

2.4. Carol Dweck: The Power of Yet -Adding "yet" can change a negative statement to an encouraging one (example: "I cannot do this!" would be changed to "I cannot do this yet!" and would imply that the person will continue to do what they can to improve. -This is called having a "Growth Mindset" The power of yet | Carol S Dweck | TEDxNorrköping

2.4.1. Growth Mindset -Increases desire to keep trying and learning -Promotes persistence and a desire not to give up

2.5. Connections to my Practice -If possible, during the summer break, I will review the files of my students I will have in September so I can have a better idea of how they may learn and how I should plan my lessons. -At the same time, I will also keep in mind that I must not jump to conclusions and be prepared to still make adjustments to what I had planned. -Whenever my students make mistakes, I will be as encouraging as I can and include the word "yet" if they find themselves feeling frustrated by a task.

3. Views of Learning

3.1. Behaviourist -Observing behaviours acquired from conditioning

3.2. Cognitive -Understanding of information and concepts

3.2.1. Bloom’s Taxonomy -Knowledge -Comprehension -Application -Analysis -Synthesis -Evaluation

3.3. Constructivist -Knowledge is constructed by experience and environment

3.3.1. Constructivist Classroom Application -Conversations -Mix of inquiry, problem-based, teacher/ peer, and collaborative learning

3.3.2. Creating Constructivist Classroom -Challenge students -Give real-life scenarios -Collaborative tasks -Different methods of completing tasks -Self-learning opportunities

4. First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Effective Teachers -Must teach effectively in all subjects and for all students in their classes

4.1.1. To Affect Students’ Learning -Create lesson plans to make content easier -Carefully choose most effective teaching strategies -Effective classroom management Instructional Variables -Level of difficulty -Space -Time -Language -Relationships

4.1.2. Instructional Strategy Choices -Cooperative learning -Organization -Homework/questions

4.1.3. Classroom Management -Deal with the problem, not the student Responsibility -Teacher: Lesson and instruction -Student: Independent or in small group

4.1.4. Learning Environment -Determines academic success -Good planning and management -Important for special needs

4.2. Resilient Children -Positive outlook on self and learning -Motivated and eager to learn -In control and self-disciplined

4.2.1. Students in Self-Regulated Learning -Complex tasks -Students take responsibility for planning and choices -Students evaluate own progress -Students solve problems with teacher guidance

4.2.2. Well-Being in Classroom -Social interaction -Supportive culture and physical space -Challenge without overwhelming -Flexibility and adaptability -Experiential learning -Connections and resources

4.3. Todd Rose: The Myth of Average -Airplane analogy: A cockpit designed for an "average" pilot will fail (pilots are not the same size/body types, therefore will have different needs in order to reach the controls) -Principle applies to the education system - Cannot design lessons for the "average" student, must design them so they can be adjusted for each student's needs The Myth of Average: Todd Rose at TEDxSonomaCounty

4.4. Tony Wagner: Most Likely to Succeed -More than knowledge and academic content -Also need skills and motivation Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed

4.5. Connections to my Practice -When I begin my teaching career, I will do my very best to ensure that my students know they can trust and approach me, and therefore not feel intimidated to let me know they are having difficulties with anything. -I will do everything I can to plan lessons that can be adjusted to accommodate a variety of students' needs as well as be interesting for as many as possible.

5. Mid-Late September: Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Motivate Students -Tasks challenging and meaningful -Effectively using learning strategies to show understanding -Teacher support and compassion

5.2. Inquiry-Based Learning -Students hypothesize and observe

5.3. Problem-Based Learning -Report findings, determine purpose

5.4. SOI Information-Processing Model -Select information -Organize information -Integrate information with prior knowledge

5.5. Universal Instructional Design -Designed for least independent students -Accessible and effective for all

5.5.1. Developmentally Appropriate Schools -View students as explorers and use play -Active learning and integration Advantages -Emotional regulation -Behaviour correction -Stress reduction -Higher academic scores

5.5.2. Direct Instruction Schools -View students as empty vessels -Compartmentalized and passive learning Disadvantages -More behaviours due to restlessness -Lower confidence, enjoyment, and academic success

5.6. Zoe Branigan-Pipe: Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan -Use technology to advantage -Constructivist approach Zoe Branigan-Pipe - Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan

5.7. Connections to my Practice -I will plan lessons that will engage students and use hands-on learning as much as possible and be as flexible as possible about how they complete their tasks. -I will also try to use technology with my lessons, but I will make sure to have backup plans for when technology fails.

6. Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

6.1. Adaptive Teaching -If students unsuccessful, must determine why and adapt

6.2. Enduring Understanding -Can students explain, interpret, apply, critique, and empathize?

6.2.1. Backward Design -Develop lessons based on assessments for specific content Three Stages Identify Desired Results -Goals and objectives -Use outside of classroom Determine Acceptable Evidence -What will assessment prove about student achievement? Plan Learning Experience/Instruction -How teaching/learning experience will allow students to understand

6.2.2. Assessment -Different purposes and times -Planned and purposeful Assessment and Instruction -What students should learn -How to determine if they learned it -What to teach and how Good Assessment -Many opportunities for improvement -Constructive feedback -Clear targets and goals -Acknowledging efforts -Students self and peer evaluate Poor Assessment -No exceptions/flexibility -Student humiliation -Unclear targets -No student involvement in process -One shot and no discussion of results

6.3. Jay McTighe: Understanding By Design -Simply assess for knowledge of facts does not tell if the students truly understand, it tells how they can memorize facts -Must assess understanding of the facts (ex: asking students to explain in their own words, applying to other scenarios) What is Understanding by Design? Author Jay McTighe explains.

6.4. Connections to my Practice -In order to determine if my students truly understand the facts they are taught, I will have them explain them to me in their own words without looking at their work. -If the students are not able to explain in their own words, I will try to explain it in a different way to help them understand, and again ask them to explain it to me in their own words. -I will also give multiple forms of assessments because some students will be better with testing, while others will be better with projects and assignments. -For each assessment I give, I will make sure to give my students constructive feedback on what they did well first, and then how they can improve.

7. Early December: Individual Differences - Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Special Education -Accommodating students with special needs in the classroom -Adapted instruction based on students’ capabilities and limits

7.1.1. Labelling -People first (ex: “a student with autism” rather than “an autistic student”) -Disability: Inability to do something -Handicap: Limit in certain situations

7.1.2. Intelligence -Ability to learn from experience and adapt to different environments -Attain and utilize knowledge in life

7.1.3. High-Incidence Exceptionalities -Mild disabilities (mild intellectual disabilities, behaviour disorders)

7.1.4. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities -Moderate to severe disabilities (autism, hearing/visually impaired, more than one disability, medical)

7.2. Access to Curriculum -Both physical and cognitive needed

7.2.1. Physical Access -Sensory and motor skills

7.2.2. Cognitive Access -Understanding material

7.2.3. Individual Student View -Students with special needs require adapted instruction

7.2.4. Curriculum View -Any student could experience difficulty in school and instructors must adjust

7.3. "Learning for All" Document -Essential tool in helping to plan lessons that will accommodate students with special needs http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/LearningforAll2013.pdf

7.4. Ken Robinson: Do Schools Kill Creativity? -Creativity should be encouraged just as much as literacy and numeracy Do schools kill creativity?

7.5. Identification and Support -Best interest of student -Work as a team and communicate -Take different circumstances into account

7.6. Instructional Approaches -Accommodate needs of all students -Use Universal Design for Learning, Differentiated Instruction, and Response to Intervention

7.7. Inclusion -Address and respond to various needs of vast group of students

7.7.1. Special Needs -Change system to fit student needs

7.7.2. Multi-Cultural -Keep cultures in mind -Beware of stereotypes

7.8. Connections to my Practice -Working part-time as an Educational Assistant, I have gained much experience working with students with special needs as well as students who are newcomers to Canada, and I have seen a variety of different ways that lessons can be adjusted to accommodate students with special needs and newcomers to Canada. -I will assess each student's needs and adjust my lessons accordingly so that any students with special needs and/or who are still learning English will be accommodated

8. Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. Multicultural Education -Cultural understanding and respect

8.1.1. Different Views -Diversity: All cultures treated fairly -Dominant: How it is in real life -Diversity and Dominant: Balance

8.1.2. Dimensions -Accommodate content and pedagogy -Anti-prejudice -Empowerment (social and cultural)

8.2. Increasing Diversity -Languages -Aboriginal -Immigrants -Single parents -Same-sex parents -Religions

8.2.1. Aboriginal Education Protection -Early intervention -Positive emotional support -Family and community involvement -Acknowledgement of land -Aboriginal role models

8.2.2. Aboriginal Education Risk Factors -Teachers lacking knowledge of decolonizing pedagogy -Constantly transferring schools -Failure of early schools -Living far away -Lack of resources

8.3. Culturally Responsive Practice -Wide knowledge of different cultures -Adjust instructional strategies -Have open mind

8.3.1. Socio-Economic Status -Be mindful of students of lower socio- economic status and how they may not be able to afford certain materials -May also experience emotional trouble

8.3.2. Stereotype Threat -Be careful of applying stereotypes on different groups

8.4. Universal Design for Learning -Recognition: What we teach and learn -Strategic: How we learn and express -Affective: Why we learn

8.5. Julien S. Bourelle: How Culture Drives Behaviour -Our behaviour is conditioned by the culture we are raised in -We tend to see "through cultural lenses" and we need to try to open our minds and avoid jumping to conclusions How Culture Drives Behaviours | Julien S. Bourrelle | TEDxTrondheim

8.6. Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning -Use a variety of different ways for students to share their cultures and traditions with the class (ex: art projects, food sampling, clothing samples) Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning.flv

8.7. The Danger of a Single Story -If we hear a negative story about a particular culture, we often become paranoid about interacting with those from this culture -Must do what we can to keep an open mind,and avoid the stereotype threat by jumping to conclusions The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

8.8. Connections to my Practice -I was very fortunate growing up because I was given many opportunities to meet people from different cultures when my father (an Applied Mathematics professor at Western's main campus) would introduce me to his graduate students from all over the world. This allowed me to hear about their cultures in a positive perspective and learn directly from them. -My father's work also provided me with opportunities to travel all over the world because he would often take me and my mother with him when he went for conferences. This allowed me to see many different cultures in person, rather than simply by reading a book or seeing photographs online. -As a teacher in this day and age, I know I will get students who are newcomers to Canada, certainly Syrian refugee children and probably from other countries as well, and I fully intend to do everything I possibly can to make all these students feel welcome not only in my classroom but in this country as well. -I really like the ideas of sharing stories about cultures other than Canada in class and I believe I will implement this in my practice as well because it will give my students an opportunity to learn about other cultures from students of these other cultures.

9. End of the School Year: Standardized Testing

9.1. Purpose -Determine instruction effectiveness

9.2. Test Types -Criterion Referenced: Compare performance with specific content -Norm Referenced: Compare performance with other students

9.3. Criticisms -Biased -Stressful -Only tests memorizing ability, does not prove students’ understanding -Time consuming

9.3.1. Constructing Better Standardized Tests -Recognize tests are not perfect forms of assessment -Have tests enhance student learning -Have tests improve curriculum design and add to student learning

9.4. Preparing Students -Positive emotional support -Give practice tests to provide skills, give same amount of time as real ones -Take up practice tests with students to provide constructive feedback

9.5. Scores -Must be logical -Compare with previous assessments -Determine extended learning

9.6. Standardized Testing in Canada -Same questions, format, and scoring

9.6.1. Federal -Math, reading, and science (age 13)

9.6.2. Provincial/Territorial -Math and literacy at specific grade levels

9.7. How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered, and Scored -Learning content and scoring guides linked across curriculum How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored

9.8. Connections to my Practice -If I am teaching grade three or six students, who will have to do the EQAO testing, I intend to do what ever I can to help them feel prepared for it by giving them practice tests beforehand so I can provide feedback for them. -I will also make it very clear that if they are concerned about anything to do with the EQAO testing, they can come to me any time to discuss it and I will do what I can to help them prepare for it so they can feel confident about it. -At the same time, I will also make sure to be encouraging to my students and ensure that they understand to just do their best, that I believe in them, and remember that this test is not the "be all end all" for them.