Hydrothermal Media

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Hydrothermal Media by Mind Map: Hydrothermal Media

1. Treatment of Waste Streams

1.1. Pulping Process Waste

1.1.1. Green Liquor Sludge

1.1.2. Wastewater Treatment Sludge

1.1.3. Chemical Flocculation Sludge

1.2. Textile Dye Effluent Waste

1.3. Chlorinated Waste

1.3.1. Carbon Tetra-Chloride

1.3.2. PVC

1.4. Paper Process Waste

1.4.1. Deinking Sludge

1.4.2. Primary Sludge

1.4.3. Biological Sludge

2. Utilization of Carbon Dioxide

2.1. As a Catalyst in Other Hydrothermal Reactions

2.1.1. Hydrothermal Processing (Biomass)

2.2. Synthesis of Solvents Directly from CO2 e.g. Methanol

2.2.1. Study the Effect of the Initial Pressure of CO2 in the Progress of the Reaction

2.2.2. Explore the Effect that pH has on the Product Distribution

2.2.3. Investigate the Performance of Other Organic Solvents and Mixtures with Water (Formamide)

2.2.4. Optimizing the Catalyst for Maximal CO2 Conversion

2.2.5. Investigating Reaction Mechanism Using C14 Labelled Deuterium

2.3. Extraction

3. Synthesis

3.1. Organic

3.1.1. Reactions Oxidation P-Xylene Partial Oxidation to Terephthalic Acid Methane Oxidation to Methanol Isomerization Coupling Cyclotrimerization Heck Reaction Hydrogen Hydrogenation Dehydrogenation Water Hydration Dehydration

3.1.2. Catalysts Homogeneous Transition Metal Salts Acids and Bases Organometalic Catalysts Heterogeneous Transition Metals Zeolites

3.2. Inorganic

3.2.1. Nanomaterials Nanocrystalline Ceria-Based Compositions (Ionic Conductors)

3.2.2. Zeolites (Microporous Crystals)

3.2.3. Complex Oxides and Fluorides

3.2.4. Low-Dimensional Aluminophosphates (Molecular Sieves)

3.2.5. Hybrid Materials Coordination Polymers Clusters

3.2.6. Superhard Materials Diamond Gallium Nitride

4. Processing of Biomass

4.1. Gas

4.1.1. Hydrogen

4.1.2. Methane

4.1.3. Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide

4.2. Carbonaceous Solid (>60 wt% C)

4.2.1. Use as Soil Additive Carbon Storage (Fixation) Fertilizer

4.2.2. Convert to Bio-Coal

4.2.3. Mesoporous Carbons or Porous Carbon Monoliths Heterogeneous Catalysts Doped with non-metals e.g. nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous Transition Metal Additives Sorbent Carbon Dioxide Contaminants in Soil and Water Supercapacitors Electric Double Layer Capacitors Pseudocapacitors

4.2.4. Aerogels, Hydrogels, and Carbogels

4.2.5. Carbon Nanomaterials Nanofibres Nanotubes Nanosphere's Encapsulation Anodes

4.3. Bio-Oil (Similar to Crude Oil)

4.3.1. Fractional Distillation to Collect Useful Solvents

4.3.2. Selectively Polymerize a Compound e.g. HMF

4.3.3. Convert to Bio-Fuel (Deoxygenation and Denitrogenation)

4.3.4. Extraction and Targeted Production of One Compound

4.4. Studying Reaction

4.4.1. Mechanism of Degradation Constituents Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Techniques Carbon 13 or Deuterium Labeling

4.4.2. Kinetics (Arrhenius-type equations) Temperature Moisture/Water Content Pressure Mass of Biomass

4.5. Biomass Sources

4.5.1. "Wet" Biomass (>20% Moisture Content) Softwood Algae Chlorella Vulgaris Haematococcus Pluvaris Nannochloropsis Agricultural Waste Bagasse Rice Hulls Barley Straw Peanut Hulls Oat Hulls Municipal Domestic Waste Food and Kitchen Waste Biomedical Waste

4.5.2. "Dry" Biomass (<15% Moisture Content) Switchgrass Wheat Straw Hardwood

5. Studying Properties

5.1. Different Solvent Mixtures

5.1.1. Water

5.1.2. Alcohols:Water

5.1.3. Linear Hydrocarbons:Water

5.1.4. Aromatics:Water

5.1.5. Esters:Water

5.1.6. Ethers:Water

5.2. Techniques

5.2.1. FT-IR

5.2.2. Labelled C13 or Deuterium with NMR

5.2.3. Reaction Based Studies Known Synthesis Methods Degradation of Simplistic Biomass Carbon Dioxide Utilization

6. Food Treatment

6.1. Pre-Treatment

6.1.1. Anaerobic Digestion

6.1.2. Fermentation

6.2. Additive-Free Preservation

6.3. Improving Quality of the Foodstuff (Health Attributes)

6.3.1. Micronutrients and Phytonutrients

6.3.2. Minerals

6.3.3. Reducing Allergenicity

6.3.4. Starch Heat Moisture Treatment Annealing

6.4. Extraction of Health Chemicals

6.4.1. Polyphenolics

6.4.2. Carotenoids

6.4.3. Glucosinolates

7. Competing Processes

7.1. Pyrolysis

7.1.1. Conventional

7.1.2. Fast

7.2. Biological

7.2.1. Anaerobic Digestion

7.2.2. Fermentation

7.3. Acid Digestion

7.4. Solvent Extraction