Area of Knowledge

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Area of Knowledge by Mind Map: Area of Knowledge

1. Scope & Application - Shahmeer

1.1. Reductionism

1.1.1. In the natural sciences, everything is governed by fixed laws. This allows researchers to reduce their findings into simpler and fewer terms.

1.1.2. ie. We can breakdown any natural object into the formation of their atoms Therefore, can we link two completely unrelated ideas to each other by breaking one idea down into the other?

1.2. The science behind patterns

1.2.1. Science is considered an AOK with traditional boundaries however the science of patterns, in the natural world, doesn’t have any kind of natural disciplinary boundaries.

2. Language & Concepts - Hamza

2.1. Diagrams

2.1.1. Diagrams produced as a result of claims always use the SI units, so the information presented can be easily interpreted by a wide audience.

2.2. Symbols

2.2.1. In SI units, standard sets of symbols are used worldwide, which have some correlation to the root unit term. Ex: metre is m, Kilogram is kg, Candela is cd. This is opposed to the Imperial system, used by few countries worldwide, which has irrational symbols for units. Ex: inch is denoted by ", foot is denoted by ', pound is denoted by lb.

2.3. Units

2.3.1. Universal Usage and Understanding The SI units have been adopted all around the world except for the US and other small countries) and is used as a universal way of expressing knowledge. It is crucial when sharing knowledge as ideally, any individual with sufficient education about the concept is able to understand when a new, related concept is shown using these universal units. RLS - If, for example, someone with the same knowledge is presented with this new information but instead doesn't use the universal units, they will have to waste time and increase uncertainty when trying to convert it into something they understand, which in turn increases chance of uncertainty, and hinders the process and speed of sharing knowledge. Also, all SI base units are currently (or in the process of) being defined by something in nature, that will never change and will always produce the same result. This is different from defining a base unit on an artefact, which is arbitrary and causes massive uncertainty and isn't logical, especially if a redefinition of the base unit must be trialled for. For example, in SI units, a metre is defined by the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. But, in the Imperial System used (in)famously by the United States, their base unit similar to the metre, which is a yard, is defined completely by artefacts (length of 3 specific barley corn seeds multiplies by 12, multiplied by 3 to equal a yard) that were once found and arbitrarily decided to defined as a unit. This is an extremely outdated method and causes immense uncertainties.

2.3.2. Système International (SI) Base Units Kilogram (kg) Metre (m) Second (s) Ampere (A) Kelvin (K) Moles (mol) Candela (cd) Derived Units The base units are not the only units used in the Scientific World, there are many other derived units to help explain various other concepts, and to define other valuable sets of data.

2.4. Language

2.4.1. Similar to Units, a system to classify objects of importance to the natural sciences is present. The most notable example is in the biological world, and how living things are classified. Taxonomy is an area of study in Biology concerned with the choice and naming of living things. Living organisms are defined and given structured names based on characteristics shared with other organisms. There are also levels of classification which further group all living organisms into hierarchies, and new ones are created when similar characteristics is found in between a significant number of organisms which don't currently fall into the existing classes. The idea is that just by examining the binomial name, someone with the expertise is able to identify substantially more about the organism and how it is related to other organisms, which is better compared to examining the colloquial name, which may be localised and thus different in many societies. This means that scientists from elsewhere would not be able to receive the knowledge packed into the Latin binomial expression, such as characteristics and traits. RLS - In the biological world, every living thing has a Binomial name (Latin Expression), and the science of taxonomy is used to classify species and classes of living things.

3. Methodology - Krishna

3.1. Rationalism

3.1.1. Inductivism Theory vs Law Theory Law RLS - In Newton's laws do not explain what gravity is or how it works, it states the effect of gravity on a certain phenomenon Observation vs Hypothesis Observation Hypothesis

3.2. Empiricism

3.2.1. Inductivism Experiment The act of conducting a controllable, measurable and repeatable set of tests in order to come to a conclusion Accuracy and Precision

3.3. Thomas Kuhn

3.3.1. The concept of Paradigm in Science

3.4. Karl Popper

3.4.1. Falsification Theory It is conclusive in theory but not practice Conjectures and Refuttions

4. Historical Development- Yuval

4.1. continuity

4.2. Historical development affect the knowledge

4.2.1. discovery

4.3. Require knowledge through the past experiences

5. Personal Knowledge - Kate

5.1. The Natural Sciences (NS) help us to understand how we perform as material entities according to laws of the universe.

5.2. Contribution to scientific progress.

5.3. Imagination, intuition and emotion are often used in of hypothesis, often in revolutionary ways.

5.3.1. Invention - a new product or process that solves a technical problem. Necessity is the mother of invention. Process of inventing something include identifying a need or a problem, thinking of possible creative ways of solving the problem, and bringing solution to life. Reasons: Need in something that is not available in the market, want to help somebody, combining 2 or more products to get a better one. Ways: Applying a better understanding of nature, combining traditional knowledge with modern scientific concepts, improving past inventions. Inventions improve our lives: make then easier (car), increase our knowledge of the world (microscopes), entertain us (televisions), save lives (fire extinguisher). Inventions may lead to a discoveries. Ex.: with the invention of telescope (Hans Lipperhey) many mountains of the moon were discovered (Galileo Galilei). Observation, experiments, collaboration and cooperation with other people, Personal Knowledge (PK) and Knowledge of NS combined all together result in finding solutions to many problems. (Ex. Pot-in-pot cooling system; VELCRO). Patent - official document given to an inventor that gives the right to stop anyone else from copying, using, distributing or selling the invention without permission. Intellectual property - a legal way to protect all creations of the human mind. Patents help to spread new knowledge. For example, inventors should share all the technical information about their invention. The available information is detailed enough, so that the invention can be reproduced. License - a document that give the right to another person (not inventor) or a company to produce, sell or distribute the invention as long as the license fee is paid. Innovation - invention changes the way of doing things. It moves science, technology and mankind forward.

5.3.2. Discovery - something that already existed bud had not been found. Discovery may lead to an invention. Ex.: discovery of the electrical effects of lightning led to the invention of lightning rod. (Benjamin Franklin, 1752).