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Corrections by Mind Map: Corrections

1. Re-entry into Community

1.1. Institutional Reentry

1.1.1. reduce cost by moving offenders to the community

1.1.2. implement prep programs

1.1.3. work release programs in community

1.2. Parole

1.2.1. conditional release of offender from incarceration

1.2.2. three base concepts: grace, contract, custody

1.3. Release Mechanisms

1.3.1. expiration - completes maximum court sentence

1.3.2. mandatory - maximum minus good time

1.3.3. discretionary - parole board decision to release to parole supervision within indeterminate sentencing states

1.3.4. other conditional release - furloughs, home supervision, probation, emergency release, compassionate release

1.4. Challenges

1.4.1. few belongings

1.4.2. small amount of money

1.4.3. employment

1.4.4. housing

1.4.5. stigma/labeling

1.4.6. stress and sobriety

2. Inmates

2.1. Economy

2.1.1. result of deprivation

2.1.2. legitimate channels are monitored/restricted

2.1.3. bartering system

2.1.4. debt as a lever

2.2. Classification

2.2.1. based upon: risk to security, education, ability to work, time to release

2.2.2. special populations: elderly, HIV/AIDS, mentally ill, long-term prisoners

2.3. HIV/AIDS

2.3.1. decline in AIDS related deaths due to treatment improvements

2.3.2. increased medical costs

2.3.3. may be low estimate due to lack of testing (1.6% of inmates)

2.4. Elderly

2.4.1. increased cost due to medical services

2.5. Mentally ill

2.5.1. influx of mentally ill into CJS

2.5.2. issues of cost, security, psychiatric units

2.5.3. deinstitutionalization of mental healthcare

2.6. Long-term prisoners

2.6.1. 20+ years

2.6.2. transition into elderly inmates

2.6.3. issues of mental health, programming, connection to community

2.7. Prison Proper

2.7.1. inmate code

2.7.2. adaptive roles

3. Colonial Period

3.1. 1600s-1700s

3.2. based on Anglican code and rooted in religious philosophy

3.3. Incorporated fines, corporal punishment, capital punishment

4. Penitentiary

4.1. 1790s-1860s

4.2. Pennsylvania System

4.2.1. Separate

4.2.2. Quaker idea of reformation through isolations, repentance

4.3. New York System

4.3.1. Congregate

4.3.2. Silent

4.3.3. isolated at night, work together during the day

4.3.4. Began contract labor system involving inmates

4.4. Convict Leasing

4.4.1. Incorporation of African Americans into correction system for use as slave labor

5. Working on release

5.1. Reformatory Movement

5.1.1. 1870s-1890s

5.1.2. National Prison Association Meeting, Cincinnati

5.1.3. Inmate change rewarded by release

5.1.4. Indeterminate sentences

5.1.5. Separation of sexes

5.1.6. Elmira Reformatory - Marks system

5.2. Rehabiliation

5.2.1. 1930s-1960s

5.2.2. Progressive/Medical model

5.2.3. Focus on environment and offender rehabilitation

5.2.4. Rehabilitate through treatment, vocational training, and education

5.3. Community Model

5.3.1. 1960s-1970s

5.3.2. Root in civil unrest,distrust of government

5.3.3. Focus on reintegration and community programming

5.4. Crime Control

5.4.1. 1970s-2000s

5.4.2. Martinsen - flawed but still used

5.4.3. Get tough on crime with longer, mandatory sentences, 3 strikes legislation, and a greater use of incarceration

6. Amendments

6.1. 1st amendment - Procunier v. Martinez, Turner v. Safley, RFRA, RLUIPA

6.2. 4th amendment - Hudson v. Palmer, Bell v. Wolfish, Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders

6.3. 8th amendment - punishment shocks conscience society, unnecessarily cruel, beyond legitimate penal aims, deliberate indifference

6.4. 14th amendment - Wolff v. McDonald, Lee v. Washington

6.5. Law and Correctional Personnel

6.5.1. Civil service laws - set hiring procedure

6.5.2. Civil Rights Act of 1964

6.5.3. Age Discrimination in Employment

6.5.4. Americans with Disabilities Act

6.6. Legal Liability

6.6.1. Cooper v. Pate

6.6.2. Monell v. Dept. of Social Services

6.6.3. rarely are payouts large, employees pay personally

7. Jail and Prisoner Rights

7.1. What is a jail?

7.1.1. holds those waiting for trial

7.1.2. executes those of misdemeanors

7.1.3. holding facility for state, federal

7.2. Common issues

7.2.1. conditions

7.2.2. lack of services

7.2.3. training of staff

7.2.4. suicide

7.2.5. mental illness

7.3. Cooper vs. Pate

7.3.1. end of "hands off" period

7.3.2. uses the Civil Rights Act of 1871

7.3.3. Section 1983 used in regards to sue for inmate conditions

8. Imprisonment

8.1. Goals

8.1.1. custodial model

8.1.2. rehabilitation model

8.1.3. reintegration model

8.2. Challenges

8.2.1. defects of total power

8.2.2. rewards and punishments

8.2.3. exchange relationships

8.2.4. inmate leaderships

8.3. Use of Force

8.3.1. self defense

8.3.2. defense of another

8.3.3. upholding prison rules

8.3.4. prevention of a crime

8.3.5. prevention of escapes

8.4. Decrease Prison Violence

8.4.1. adequate supervision

8.4.2. architechural design

8.4.3. reducing availability of weapons

8.4.4. proper use of classification

8.4.5. avoid overcrowding

9. Probation

9.1. History

9.1.1. John Augustus, Boston 1841

9.1.2. first statewide system in Massachusetts

9.1.3. 21 states by 1920

9.1.4. evolved to supervision and service provision

9.2. Administration

9.2.1. Centralized vs. Decentralized

9.2.2. works best with solid working relationship between judge and supervising officer

9.3. What does a probation officer do?

9.3.1. attend court

9.3.2. write presentence reports

9.3.3. supervision of clients

9.4. Options

9.4.1. home confinement

9.4.2. community service

9.4.3. day reporting

9.4.4. ISP

9.4.5. boot camps

10. Juvenile

10.1. Puritan Era

10.1.1. 1645-1824

10.1.2. discipline at hands of family

10.2. Refuge Period

10.2.1. 1824-1899

10.2.2. same criminal justice procedure used for adults

10.3. Juvenile Court Era

10.3.1. 1899-1960

10.3.2. creation of separate court system for juveniles

10.4. Juvenile Rights Period

10.4.1. 1960-1980

10.4.2. refinement of court process and rights of juvenile

10.5. Crime Control Period

10.5.1. 1980-2005

10.5.2. support of waiver to adult courts

10.6. "Kids are Different" Period

10.6.1. 2005-present

10.6.2. rehabilitation of child to family

10.7. Correctional Options

10.7.1. Probation - 60%

10.7.2. Intermediate Sanctions

10.7.3. Custodial care

10.7.4. Outpatient treatment/aftercare