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1. Language in use

2. Discourse analysts

2.1. - Notice patternings of language in use and the circumstances with which these are typically associated.

2.2. - Provide accounts

3. Discourse

3.1. - The study of language viewed communicatively and/or of communication viewed linguistically.

3.2. Language above or beyond the sentence

3.3. - Language as meaning in interaction

3.4. - Language in situational and cultural context

4. Discourse and L1

4.1. Children bring to their school experience of a variety of standard and non-standard dialects and communicative codes which tend to be valued differently within the commodified “exchange system” of classroom speech

4.2. The school, in turn, brings to the children’s learning experience an organized process of classroom talk which may promote personal involvement, co-ordinated interaction, and shared meaning or induce the transmission of standardized knowledge through a standardized structure

5. Discourse and L2

5.1. ability of members of speech communities to put language to use.

5.1.1. Materials (text or audio/video) are selected and presented to meet criteria of communicative authenticity.

5.1.2. Tests are constructed to recreate as closely as possible th conditions under which language will be used in real communication in the defined target situation.

6. Each linguist will study language in use considering other disciplines

7. Ways and means

7.1. Rules and principles

7.1.1. Approaches which study the means by which language users make senses of other's utterances pragmatics (including speech act theory and politeness theory) conversation analysis Rules of turn-taking and topic-management Sequencing rules governing relations between acts

7.2. Contexts and culture

7.2.1. Approaches which focus on the sensitivity of ways of speaking (and writing) to situational and cultural differences. Ethnography of communication Describe the ways of speaking associated with particular speech communities Interactional sociolinguist Describe culturally specific contextual presuppositions, to the signals – “contextualisation cues” such as code- and style- switching, and prosodic and lexical choices

7.3. Function and structures

7.3.1. Text-friendly models of language and grammar-friendly approaches to text. Systemic-functional linguistics sees language not as part of the wider socio-cultural context, as “social semiotic” sees grammar as meaning potential – a “potential” that is functionally determined by the need of speakers and writers provides a comprehensive theory of text analysis and genre Birmingham school discourse analysis Revealed a hierarchical model of discourse structure (lesson, transaction, exchange, move, act, ect) Text-linguistics Focus on text, generally defined as language “above,” “beyond” or “longer than” the sentence

7.4. Power and politics

7.4.1. Pragmatic and sociolinguistic approaches to power in language

7.4.2. Critical discourse analysis political enterprise in the additional and crucial sense that it is motivated by a particular political agenda

8. Issues of approach, focus and method

8.1. Interaction

8.1.1. discourse can be analysed in the interaction

8.1.2. The interactionality of discourse is not restricted to the spoken language. “Text is a form of exchange;

8.2. Context

8.2.1. Interaction encodes: Inter: context: the participants, understood in terms of their roles and statuses as well as their uniqueness as individuals, between whom the discourse is enacted Action: function, the socially recognized purposes to the fulfillment of which the interaction is directed;

8.3. Function

8.3.1. Context and function are closely interconnected. we can recognize a context of situation by the kind of communicative functions that are typically realized in it (in church, praying; in the classroom, eliciting) we can recognize a function by the kind of contexts required for its performance (sentencing: the end of a trial, judge speaking, etc).

8.4. Instrumentalities

8.4.1. resources of the language system (lexico-grammar and intonation), contextually determined or determining registers or styles, and genres. Discourse analysis needs a functional model of language that can show how the resources of the language system are organized to meet the needs of “whos and whats” “function-external” “function-internal”

8.5. Text

8.5.1. “verbal record of a speech event,”

8.5.2. “the product of [a speech] event, especially in the form of visible text, whether originally spoken and subsequently transcribed or originally written,”

8.5.3. “unit of meaning.”