Rock and Fossil Record

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Rock and Fossil Record by Mind Map: Rock and Fossil Record

1. Earth's Story

1.1. Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism

1.1.1. In other words, processes that we observe today today, such as erosion and deposition remain uniform or do not change over time. This assumption is now called uniformaitariansim. Uniformaitariansim is the idea that the same geological process shaping the Earth today have been at work throughtout Earth's history.

1.1.2. Catastrophism is the principal that states that all geological change occurs suddenly. Supporters of Catastrophism thought that Earth's features as it's mountains, canyons and seas formed during rare sudden events catastrophic.

1.2. Science of geology has changed over the past 200 years

1.2.1. Geologic history of Earth, evolution of the continents, oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. The layers of rock at Earth’s surface contain evidence of the evolutionary processes undergone by these components of the terrestrial environment during the times at which each layer was formed.

1.3. Role of paleontology in the study of Earth’s history

1.3.1. Paleontology is the study of the history of life on Earth as based on fossils. Fossils are the remains of plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and single-celled living things that have been replaced by rock material or impressions of organisms preserved in rock.

2. Relative dating

2.1. Relative dating is used in geology

2.1.1. Relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. Determining whether an object or an event is older or younger than other objects.

2.2. Principle of superposition

2.2.1. Undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each layer of rock is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it. Accordingly, the oldest rocks in a sequence are at the bottom and the youngest rocks are at the top.

2.3. Geologic column is used in relative dating

2.3.1. The geological column is an abstract construction of the earth's history based on the ages of the fossils proposed by the idea of descent with modification. The fossils in the strata are used to determine relative dates, the simpler the fossil the older the fossil.

2.4. Two events and two features that disrupt rock layers

2.4.1. Folding and tilting are two types of events that disturb rock layers. These events are always younger than the rock layers they affect.

2.5. Physical features are used to determine relative ages

2.5.1. rock layers and how old the last(oldest layer of rock may be in relation to each other and the features that cut across. Explain how radioactive decay occurs.

3. Absolute Dating

3.1. Radioactive decay occurs

3.1.1. Radioactive decay occurs in unstable atomic nuclei – that is, ones that don't have enough binding energy to hold the nucleus together due to an excess of either protons or neutrons.

3.2. Radioactive decay relates to Radiometric dating

3.2.1. Radiometric dating is a method used to date rocks and other objects based on the known decay rate of radioactive isotopes. The decay rate is referring to radioactive decay, which is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by releasing radiation.

3.3. Four types of Radiometric dating

3.3.1. 1.Argon–argon (Ar–Ar) 2.Iodine–xenon (I–Xe) 3.Lanthanum–barium (La–Ba) 4.Lead–lead (Pb–Pb)

3.4. Best type of radiometric dating to use to date an object

3.4.1. Among the best-known techniques are radiocarbon dating, potassium–argon dating and uranium–lead dating.

4. Looking at Fossils

4.1. Five ways different types of fossils form

4.1.1. preservation of original remains, permineralization, molds and casts, replacement, and compression.

4.2. Three types of fossils that are not part of organisms

4.2.1. Molds and Casts, petrification, footprints and trackways

4.3. History of changes in environments and organisms

4.3.1. Fossils provide evidence that organisms from the past are not the same as those found today, and demonstrate a progression of evolution. Scientists date and categorize fossils to determine when the organisms lived relative to each other.

4.4. Index fossils can be used to date rock layers

4.4.1. Index fossils are fossils of organisms that lived during only one short period of time. A layer rock with an index fossil in it is close in age to another layer of rock with the same type of index fossil in it. Even though rock layers are of different regions, index fossils indicates that the layers are close in age.

5. Time Marches on

5.1. Geologic time is recorded in rock layers

5.1.1. Relative time is recorded in rocks. Actually, the evidence is in the rocks! Each of these rock layers represents a period of time in Earth's history, so the entire sequence of layers is another timeline.

5.2. Important dates on the geologic time scale

5.2.1. 1. ARCHEAN EON, Oxygen levels rise as a result of photosynthetic organisms. First eukaryotes (single-celled algae): 1.4 billion years old. Earliest life, anaerobic prokaryotes (bacteria, archaeans) originate 3.5 billion years ago. 2. No life known. Cooling and solidifying of Earth's crust. 3. Paleozoic, Cambrian, Rise of all major animal groups. Metazoan life abundant; trilobites dominant. First fish. No known terrestrial life.

5.3. Environmental changes resulted in the extinction of some species

5.3.1. Species extinction. ... Direct effects (e.g. overexploitation, pollution and habitat destruction) and indirect effects as a result of climate change and perturbations of ocean biogeochemistry have been the major reasons for species extinction.