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Thicker in middle

Critical Angle

Sin C= 1/N(refractive index)

Point on the principal axis,to which an incident beam parallel to the principal axis is made to converge

Law of reflection

angle of incidence = angle of reflection


Happens In liquid or gas only

Distance between particles increases

The material become less dense

Less dense martial move upwards to form convection current



Scalar, Distance/Speed

Vector, Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration



Average speed



Distance-time, Find distance travelled, Y-axis value, Find speed, Gradient

Speed-time, Find distance travelled, Area under the graph, Find speed, Y-axis value, Find acceleration, Gradient

Thermal Physics

Kinetic Particle Theory

Structure of solid liquid and gas, Arrangement of particles, Distance between particles, Forces between particles

Property of solid liquid and gas

Heat Transfer

Conduction, Use particle theory to explain conduction, Particle of hot substance vibrate faster, Collide into neighboring particles, Kinetic energy is transferred, Metal has free electron, Good conductor

Radiation, Infra-red part of electromagnetic spectrum, Factors affecting radiation, Surface temperature, Surface area, Surface color and texture, Black and dull, Bad reflector, Good emitter, Good absorber, White and shiny, Good reflector, Poor emitter, Poor absorber

thermal Property

Change of state, Boiling and evaporation, Difference, Boiling:Takes places throughout,Fixed temperature,Effervescences,fast, Evaporation:Surface area,Room temperature,No effervescence,Slow, Condensation, Vapour-Water, Melting, Solid-Water, Freezing, Water-Solid, Sublimation, Solid-vapour

Heating and cooling curve, S, S+L, L, L+G, G, Boiling and melting point

Wave Physics

Basic Wave Concepts

Types of Wave, Transverse, Electromagnetic Waves, Ocean Waves, Longitudinal, Sound

Wave components, Amplitude, Wavelength, Frequency, Period

Wave Equations, Frequency = 1/Period, Speed of wave = Frequency * Wavelength

Graph of wave, Displacement/Position Graph, Y-axis is displacement, X-axis is position (distance), Wavelength and amplitude can be found on the graph, Period and frequency cannot be found on the graph, Displacement/Time graph, Y-axis is Displacement, X-axis is Time, Amplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from the graph, Wavelength cannot be found from this graph


Property of light, Transverse Wave, Part of the Electromagnetic Wave, Travels in Straight line, Speed of light in vacuum, Property of image, Real/Virtual, Upright/Inverted, Magnified/Diminished

Reflection, Regular/Diffused reflection, Angles, incident/reflected ray, Normal, Ray diagram for mirror reflection, Ray from Object to mirror, Draw normal line, Use law of reflection to draw reflected ray, repeat for a differnt incident ray, extend the reflected ray backward to find image, Property of image from mirror

Refraction, Angles, incident/refracted ray, Normal, Refractive index, n=sin i / sin r, Law of refraction, Less dense to more dense, n=sin i / sin r, n = c / v, More dense to less dense, n=sin r / sin i, Ray diagram for refraction, Total internal reflection, Conditions, the light must travel from more dense to less dense medium, Ray diagram

lenses, Ray Diagram, Property of images, Uses, Diverging, Thinner in middle, Terms, Principal axis, Line passing through the optical centre of lens and perpendicular to plane of lens, Optical centre,C, Point midway between the lens surfaces on principal axis, Principal focus,F, Focal length,f, The distance between optical centre and principal focus F, Focal plane, Vertical plane which passes through the principal focus and perpendicular to the principal axis


Propagation of sound

Speed of sound in different media

Echo/sound calculation

Pitch and loudness, graph

Electromagnetic Wave

Name/order, GXUVIMR


Basic Physics

Physical Quantities

Scalar, Unit, Magnitude

Vector, Unit, Magnitude, Direction

Base Quantities, Length, Mass, Time, Temperature, Current, Amount of substance, Luminous Intensity

Base Units, Metre, Kilogram, Second, Degree Kelvin, Ampere, Mole, Candela


Length, Vernier Calpers, Micrometer Screw Gauge

Time, Measurement of Period of pendulum

Vector Diagrams

Scale of diagram, Large scale for accurate graph

Drawing of Vectors, Direction is important (arrows)


Resultant Vector, Direction is important (arrows)

Use Scale to find magnitude