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## 5. Convection

### 5.1. Happens In liquid or gas only

5.1.1. Distance between particles increases

5.1.2. The material become less dense

5.1.3. Less dense martial move upwards to form convection current

## 6. KInematics

### 6.1. Quantities

6.1.1. Scalar

6.1.1.1. Distance/Speed

6.1.2. Vector

6.1.2.1. Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration

### 6.2. Equations

6.2.1. Speed

6.2.2. Average speed

6.2.3. Acceleration

### 6.3. Graph

6.3.1. Distance-time

6.3.1.1. Find distance travelled

6.3.1.1.1. Y-axis value

6.3.1.2. Find speed

6.3.2. Speed-time

6.3.2.1. Find distance travelled

6.3.2.1.1. Area under the graph

6.3.2.2. Find speed

6.3.2.2.1. Y-axis value

6.3.2.3. Find acceleration

## 7. Thermal Physics

### 7.1. Kinetic Particle Theory

7.1.1. Structure of solid liquid and gas

7.1.1.1. Arrangement of particles

7.1.1.2. Distance between particles

7.1.1.3. Forces between particles

7.1.2. Property of solid liquid and gas

### 7.2. Heat Transfer

7.2.1. Conduction

7.2.1.1. Use particle theory to explain conduction

7.2.1.1.1. Particle of hot substance vibrate faster

7.2.1.1.2. Collide into neighboring particles

7.2.1.1.3. Kinetic energy is transferred

7.2.1.2. Metal has free electron

7.2.1.2.1. Good conductor

7.2.2.1. Infra-red part of electromagnetic spectrum

7.2.2.2.1. Surface temperature

7.2.2.2.2. Surface area

7.2.2.2.3. Surface color and texture

### 7.3. thermal Property

7.3.1. Change of state

7.3.1.1. Boiling and evaporation

7.3.1.1.1. Difference

7.3.1.2. Condensation

7.3.1.2.1. Vapour-Water

7.3.1.3. Melting

7.3.1.3.1. Solid-Water

7.3.1.4. Freezing

7.3.1.4.1. Water-Solid

7.3.1.5. Sublimation

7.3.1.5.1. Solid-vapour

7.3.2. Heating and cooling curve

7.3.2.1. S, S+L, L, L+G, G

7.3.2.2. Boiling and melting point

## 8. Wave Physics

### 8.1. Basic Wave Concepts

8.1.1. Types of Wave

8.1.1.1. Transverse

8.1.1.1.1. Electromagnetic Waves

8.1.1.1.2. Ocean Waves

8.1.1.2. Longitudinal

8.1.1.2.1. Sound

8.1.2. Wave components

8.1.2.1. Amplitude

8.1.2.2. Wavelength

8.1.2.3. Frequency

8.1.2.4. Period

8.1.3. Wave Equations

8.1.3.1. Frequency = 1/Period

8.1.3.2. Speed of wave = Frequency * Wavelength

8.1.4. Graph of wave

8.1.4.1. Displacement/Position Graph

8.1.4.1.1. Y-axis is displacement

8.1.4.1.2. X-axis is position (distance)

8.1.4.1.3. Wavelength and amplitude can be found on the graph

8.1.4.1.4. Period and frequency cannot be found on the graph

8.1.4.2. Displacement/Time graph

8.1.4.2.1. Y-axis is Displacement

8.1.4.2.2. X-axis is Time

8.1.4.2.3. Amplitude, Period and Frequency can be found from the graph

8.1.4.2.4. Wavelength cannot be found from this graph

### 8.2. Light

8.2.1. Property of light

8.2.1.1. Transverse Wave

8.2.1.2. Part of the Electromagnetic Wave

8.2.1.3. Travels in Straight line

8.2.1.4. Speed of light in vacuum

8.2.1.5. Property of image

8.2.1.5.1. Real/Virtual

8.2.1.5.2. Upright/Inverted

8.2.1.5.3. Magnified/Diminished

8.2.2. Reflection

8.2.2.1. Regular/Diffused reflection

8.2.2.2. Angles, incident/reflected ray, Normal

8.2.2.3. Ray diagram for mirror reflection

8.2.2.3.1. Ray from Object to mirror

8.2.2.3.2. Draw normal line

8.2.2.3.3. Use law of reflection to draw reflected ray

8.2.2.3.4. repeat for a differnt incident ray

8.2.2.3.5. extend the reflected ray backward to find image

8.2.2.4. Property of image from mirror

8.2.3. Refraction

8.2.3.1. Angles, incident/refracted ray, Normal

8.2.3.2. Refractive index

8.2.3.2.1. n=sin i / sin r

8.2.3.3. Law of refraction

8.2.3.3.1. Less dense to more dense

8.2.3.3.2. n = c / v

8.2.3.3.3. More dense to less dense

8.2.3.4. Ray diagram for refraction

8.2.3.5. Total internal reflection

8.2.3.5.1. Conditions

8.2.3.5.2. Ray diagram

8.2.4. lenses

8.2.4.1. Ray Diagram

8.2.4.2. Property of images

8.2.4.3. Uses

8.2.4.4. Diverging

8.2.4.4.1. Thinner in middle

8.2.4.5. Terms

8.2.4.5.1. Principal axis

8.2.4.5.2. Optical centre,C

8.2.4.5.3. Principal focus,F

8.2.4.5.4. Focal length,f

8.2.4.5.5. Focal plane

### 8.3. Sound

8.3.1. Propagation of sound

8.3.2. Speed of sound in different media

8.3.3. Echo/sound calculation

8.3.4. Pitch and loudness

8.3.4.1. graph

### 8.4. Electromagnetic Wave

8.4.1. Name/order

8.4.1.1. GXUVIMR

8.4.2. Uses

## 9. Basic Physics

### 9.1. Physical Quantities

9.1.1. Scalar

9.1.1.1. Unit

9.1.1.2. Magnitude

9.1.2. Vector

9.1.2.1. Unit

9.1.2.2. Magnitude

9.1.2.3. Direction

9.1.3. Base Quantities

9.1.3.1. Length

9.1.3.2. Mass

9.1.3.3. Time

9.1.3.4. Temperature

9.1.3.5. Current

9.1.3.6. Amount of substance

9.1.3.7. Luminous Intensity

9.1.4. Base Units

9.1.4.1. Metre

9.1.4.2. Kilogram

9.1.4.3. Second

9.1.4.4. Degree Kelvin

9.1.4.5. Ampere

9.1.4.6. Mole

9.1.4.7. Candela

### 9.2. Measurements

9.2.1. Length

9.2.1.1. Vernier Calpers

9.2.1.2. Micrometer Screw Gauge

9.2.2. Time

9.2.2.1. Measurement of Period of pendulum

### 9.3. Vector Diagrams

9.3.1. Scale of diagram

9.3.1.1. Large scale for accurate graph

9.3.2. Drawing of Vectors

9.3.2.1. Direction is important (arrows)

9.3.3. Parallelogram

9.3.4. Resultant Vector

9.3.4.1. Direction is important (arrows)

9.3.5. Use Scale to find magnitude