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LGBTQ by Mind Map: LGBTQ

1. LGBTQ: Professional Responses, Student Responses Resources What resources are there on campus for students to use? There are CAPS support groups, ***check website for more*** *it may be a good idea to really emphasize WHERE to find resources. Do students at this school feel like they have adequate resources? Why? Weekly visits from therapist to the LGBTQ Affairs office are great! Students feel there is a need for more awareness of resources (more visibility) Students also feel the LGBTQ Affairs office could benefit from being open longer Currently open 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Could extend hours into the evening This might encourage a buddy system at night on campus (creates a safer environment) Could also be open an extra day on the weekends What is the usage rate of these resources? Are students returning? Approximately 1 out of 10 LGBTQ students seek resources such as CAPS. For CAPS, once students start attending, retention rate is high. Students may feel unsure if resources are safe places for LGBTQ members. For some, it may be just a matter of feeling uncomfortable seeking out resources due to a concern that these resources are unfriendly to LGBTQ, including CAPS. A helpful way to solve this issue is to show students how friendly and amenable the resources can be. Show that staff members have training and experience in understanding the LGBTQ community. How are these resources being promoted? Resources are being advertised through pamphlets, flyers, multiple events, and a centralized information source through the LGBTQ affairs website Welcome to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning Affairs | LGBTQ Affairs What are students struggling with the most? Students feel that there can be more done to accommodate the LGBTQ community. Examples given include training instructors in the proper use of pronouns and dormitory issues. With dormitory issues students feel they must keep quiet about their identity to be allowed access to all dormitories on campus. One student claims that because they identified as a transgender student, the living option was limited to only one dormitory on campus. Some other issues were mentioned. Students sometimes feel that it can be very difficult to find other members of the LGBTQ community. Additionally, students feel the university could do more to warn the whole student population about the visitors who aggressively prosthelytize to students on a religious basis. Normally the university is very good at sending alerts to students about acts of aggression near or on campus. The students feel the university could do more to either warn or ban such aggressive behavior to make campus more of a safe space. How successful have your strategies in helping them been? How do you judge your success? Success is judged objectively and subjectively. Objectively, success is determined through surveys and questionnaires. Subjectively, success can be seen in the lives of the students themselves and what they choose to share with those from which they seek council. Are there resources outside of campus students are frequently using? Why? SAGA - monthly support groups Crisis shelters The Anchor project Living Out Loud El Rio Clinic Senior pride Abiertos Puertos Reason: some of these support groups may provide more relevant help that resources found on campus. Are most resources free? Or are students paying? If so how much? All of the resources are free and available to the students any time. Issues Do the students feel as if they are being treated fairly/ with respect? Ask Jen Hoefel-olsen for stats The answer is mostly yes. This is based on what students are telling counselors. In surveys, ratings of the university toward LGBTQ are high, especially with transgender students. From students: the general fairness rating agrees with the professional opinion. (See other sections of this interview for more information.) What do you feel are some common issues that the LGTBQ community faces on a regular basis in college? Students feel that they are not always free to be themselves and express their identity. Some students have stated that they either feel discriminated against or have seen discrimination of their fellow community members. One student even reported being talked about and called derogatory names in when not present to be defended. What aspects of this community would you like to see more work toward progressive attitudes? More education and training in LGBTQ matters with students and professionals. What do members of the LGBTQ community struggle with the most on campus? Is there a solution in place? Improvement is always needed. Preferred name policy Bathroom policies (gender neutrality) More inclusivism and representation in places of authority and esteem Additional Questions: Stigma because of identity: Some more issues Minority oppression, underemployed, kicked out of family homes, general rejection Results of these circumstances Depression, anxiety, shame, addiction, suicide (attempted/accomplished)

2. Sources

2.1. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth.

2.1.1. Mental Health in LGBT Prior to 1970s the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality as a "sociopathic personality disturbance" This was removed in 1973 (although not all conditions related to same-sex attractions were not removed until 1987 Minority stress theory posits that sexual minorities experience distinct, chronic stressors including discrimination, prejudice, and victimization These stressors along with normal everyday stressors comprise the mental health and well being of LGBT people 3 stress processes Objective or external stressors One's expectations that victimization or rejection will occur The internalization of negative social attitudes LGBT youth's interpersonal experiences and intrapersonal resources should be considered as potential sources of risk and resilience

2.1.2. Prevalence of LGBT Mental Health Problems All youth have been indicated to have 10% suffering from a mood disorder, 25% from an anxiety disorder, and 8.3% from a substance use disorder Suicide is 3rd leading cause of death for youth between 10 - 14 and 2nd leading for ages 15 to 24 LGBT youth report elevated rates of emotional distress, suicidal ideation, self-harm, suicidal behavior, etc. when compared to heterosexual youth LGBT youth almost 3x more likely to report suicidality Study with LGBT youth ages 16 - 20 indicated that nearly 1/3 pf participants met the criteria for a mental disorder and/or attempted suicide ~18% of lesbian and gay youth that participated met the criteria for major depression. 11.3% for PTSD in last year. 31% of LGBT sample reported suicidal behavior at some point in their lives. Bisexual youth are at a greater risk for poor mental health compared to both gay and straight counterparts

2.1.3. Risk Factos 2 process used to frame and explore mechanisms that exacerbate risk for LGBT youth First to is examine greater likelihood of previously identified universal risk factors Second explores LGBT-specific factors such as stigma and discrimination and how these compound everyday stressors to create poor outcomes At social/cultural level, lack of support in the fabric of many institutions that guide the lives of LGBT youth (family, school, religious communities) As of 2015 only 19 states had fully enumerated antibullying laws that include specific protections for LGBT Rates of bullying decrease over adolescent years for all, but this trend is less prevalent for LGBT youth LGBT that fear rejection from family and friends also report higher levels of depression and anxiety

2.1.4. Protective Factors LGBT students in schools with GSAs and SOGI resources report feeling safer Support from parents, friends, and the community contributed to positive well-being in young adulthood. Parental support gave the greatest benefits Dating same sex partners improved mental health and lowered substance abuse behaviors Coming out at school had positive affects on depression levels and well-being, Even if they were at higher risk of victimization

2.2. National Alliance of Mental Illness (article)

2.2.1. How do mental health illnesses affect the LGBTQ community? Variety of mental health illnesses including major depression, generalized anxiety and PTSD Fear of coming out and being discriminated abuse and harassment suicide higher risk of suicide due to lack of peer support leading cause of death in ages 16-24. Prejudice and stigma (Minority stress) social stigma prejudice discrimination denial of civil/human rights substance abuse stats comparing substance abuse between LGBTQ and general pop, showing increased rate in LGBTQ community.

2.2.2. LGBTQ Youth information and mental illness. Teens in schools are facing fear, prejudice and hate. Depression rates drastically higher in LGBTQ youth National school climate survey (reports experience of LGBTQ youth in schools) Early intervention, comprehensive treatment and family support discussions. It gets better campaign and the Trevor project.

2.2.3. Disparates in care between the Gen pop and the LGBTQ community (past and present) 50's and 60's homosexuality and bisexuality were believed to be mental health illnesses. gay men and women were being forced to treatment. Unequal care due to lack of understanding proper care for the unique needs of LGBTQ community members is non existent

2.2.4. Finding a provider, Tips, support and resources How to find an inclusive LGBTQ provider Tips for talking to a provider and how to get comfortable provides a list of supports and resources that provide support services to LGBTQ members.

2.3. Transgender Clients: Identifying and Minimizing Barriers to Mental Health Treatment.

2.3.1. Clinicians Believe they are unfit to help transgenders There is a cultural gap that cannot be crossed without extra training No extra training is needed, just include being LGBT as part of patient context Provider ignorance and insensitivity are prevalent Small efforts in increasing cultural sensitivity would be beneficial

2.3.2. Bad experiences 13% of participants who needed treatment but didn't seek care did so because of previously bad experiences. Possible reason for this is lack of provider sensitivity 27% of the participants who needed treatment but didn't seek care because they knew someone with a bad experience Similar results were found in studies with other groups In study with alcoholics, 67% of participants had a negative attitude about counseling Study with veterans found that bad experiences were one reason why care wasn't sought Using these studies it can be found that bad experiences are a common barrier for many different groups

2.3.3. High cost In this study 95% of participants had health care The findings could show the assumption that insurance does not cover mental health care costs The study took place in Massachusetts where health insurance is a requirement for all residents Was the primary barrier reported in the overall sample It was also the primary barrier for those who were distressed but did not seek care

2.3.4. Similar Struggles Issues the LGBT community has are similar to those of other communities Have had bad experiences Believe cost to be a major barrier in receiving good care Stigma struggles are also shared In all studies there were concerns about how receiving help would be viewed by peers People in all the studies believed there was a chance of losing friends if they got help

3. Resources

3.1. University of Arizona LGBTQ Affairs.

3.1.1. creates a safe space for LGBTQ members on campus via multiple resources. Safe zone network that educates anyone and everyone on making the university a more welcoming and safe place for LGBTQ community.

3.2. University of Arizona Office of Institutional Equity.

3.3. Welcome to the gay friendly Tucson Metropolitan Area

3.3.1. Posts gay friendly events happening in tucson Fairs Clubs Festivals Tours

3.3.2. Posts gay friendly places to stay in Tucson

3.3.3. Resources Adoption/Foster Care Domestic Violence Support Social Groups Sports

3.3.4. Posts gay friendly businesses in Tucson Restaurants Shops Healthcare providors Skin care Automotive Insurance Attorneys

3.3.5. Posts multitude of gay friendly wedding services Clothes (ie dress & tux) Florists Cakes Catering Photography Ceremony/Reception sites

4. Interviews