Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer by Mind Map: Breast Cancer

1. Causative factors

1.1. Alcoholic beverages

1.2. Diethylstilbestrol

1.3. Estrogen-progestogen contraceptives

1.4. Estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy

1.5. X-radiation, Y-RADIATION

2. Risk facotors

2.1. Tobacco smoking

2.2. Estrogen menopausal therapy

2.3. Ethylene oxide

2.4. Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption

2.5. Family history

2.6. Genetics

2.7. Race/Ethnicity

2.8. Lifestyle factors

2.9. Having never being pregnant

3. Pathophysiologic etiology

3.1. Eitopathogenesis is that invasive cancer arise through a series of molecular alterations at the cell level. These alterations result in breast epithelial cells with immortal features and uncontrolled growth and align with the presence of absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

4. Diagnostic tests

4.1. Mammography

4.2. MRI

4.3. Ultrasound

4.4. Annual clinical breast examination

4.5. BRCA1, BRCA2/HER2/CA15-3, CA27.29

4.6. HER2/neu/Estrogen Receptor/Progesterone Receptor

4.7. Oncotype DX/MammaPrint

5. Common findings

5.1. New lump or mass

5.2. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges

5.3. Swelling of all or part of a breast

5.4. Skin irritation or dimpling

5.5. Breast or nipple pain

5.6. Nipple retraction

5.7. Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin

5.8. Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)

6. Treatments

6.1. Chemotherapy

6.2. Radiation Therapy

6.3. Hormone Therapy

6.4. Breast Cancer Surgery

6.5. Targeted/Biologic Therapy

6.6. Treatment by stage

7. Immunity pathophysiologic factor

7.1. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying breast cancer development have revealed that immune cells functionally regulate epithelial cancer development and progression with both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Lymphocytes, including T cells, T regulatory cells, and natural killer cells, and their cytokine release patterns are implicated in both primary prevention and recurrence of beast cancer. Cancer prognosis may be related to immune system functional status. An immune response toward an evolving breast neoplasm is largely determine by the type of immune response elicited.