Cataracts

Cataracts - Pathophys, Treatment aims, treatments

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Cataracts by Mind Map: Cataracts

1. Pathophysiology

1.1. Change in lens protein

1.2. Oxidative stress to proteins & Lipids in lens

1.3. Electrolyte disturbance

1.4. Glucose toxicity

2. Three types

2.1. Nuclear Cataracts

2.2. Cortical

2.3. Posterior subcapsula

3. Symptoms

3.1. Difficult seeing at night

3.2. Blurred or double vision

3.3. Halos around bright lights

3.4. Vision worse with bright light

3.5. difficulty reading

3.6. poor depth perception

3.7. difficulty distinguishing colour

4. Contributing factors

4.1. Age

4.1.1. decreased digestive secretion

4.1.2. decrease HCL

4.1.3. decrease nutrient absorption

4.1.3.1. B12

4.1.3.2. Folate

4.1.3.3. Protein

4.2. Smoking

4.3. Alcohol

4.4. Blood sugar dysregulation

4.5. Hypertension

4.6. Overweight/obesity

4.7. UV light/radiation

4.8. Diet;

4.8.1. promotes oxidative stree

4.8.2. promotes inflammation

4.8.3. nutrient deficeincy from intake

4.8.4. promotes glucose dysregulation

5. Digestion

5.1. Age, decrease secretions,

6. Liver/Detoxification/elimination

7. Cardiovascular system

7.1. Blood pressure

7.2. Blood circulation

7.2.1. Oxygen/nutrient supply

7.2.2. Elimination metabolites

7.2.3. Anti-inflammatory

7.2.4. Decrease oxidative stress

7.3. Vascular integrity

7.3.1. athlerosclerosis

7.3.2. stiff arteries

8. Nervous system

8.1. Stress of losing eye sight

9. Treatment aim

9.1. reduce oxidative stress

9.1.1. reduce accumulation of free radicals

9.1.2. improve circulation

9.2. prevent accumulation of sorbitol

9.2.1. reduce aldose reductase

9.2.2. reduce accumulation of AGEs

9.3. support electrolyte balance

9.3.1. maintain/support glutathione levels

10. Treatment

10.1. Vitamin C

10.1.1. Dose 250-2000mg/day

10.1.2. anti-oxidant

10.1.3. decrease hypertension

10.1.4. decrease inflammation

10.1.5. improves vascular integrity

10.1.6. detoxify toxic metabolites

10.1.7. promote cellular healing

10.1.8. energy metabolism

10.2. NAC

10.2.1. dose 100 - 2500mg/day

10.2.2. stimulates glutathione synthesis

10.2.2.1. B2 involved in glutathione synthesis

10.2.3. anti-oxidant

10.2.4. protects stomach and intestinal lining

10.3. Remove contributing factors

10.3.1. high GI foods

10.3.2. 'smoking

10.3.3. alcohol

10.3.4. processed/trans fats

10.3.5. processed foods/sugar

10.4. Reduce overweight/obesity

10.5. diet

10.5.1. Dark leafy greenms

10.5.1.1. reduce free radicals

10.5.1.2. improve circulation

10.5.1.3. regulate hyperglycaemia

10.5.1.4. modulate inflammation

10.6. beta-carotene

10.6.1. dose 10-40mg/day

10.6.2. regulates proinflammatory cyotkines

10.6.3. anti-oxidant

10.6.4. reduce/regulate hyperglycaemia

10.6.5. protects from LDL oxidation

10.6.6. vitamin A precursor of Vitamin A

10.6.7. prevents oxidative damage to DNA

10.6.8. atherosclerosis

10.6.9. radiation

10.6.10. night blindness

10.7. hydration

10.7.1. dose 30ml x Kg

10.8. zinc

10.8.1. dose 10-90mg/day

10.8.2. protein structures in the eye

10.8.3. aid the absorption of B vitamins

10.8.4. supports insulin synthesis and fiunction

10.8.5. regulate blood glucose levels

10.8.6. cell differeniation and proliferation

10.8.7. improve circulation via reducing fatty plaques

10.9. selenium

10.9.1. dose 200-800ug/day

10.9.2. anti-oxidant

10.9.3. co-factor glutathione peroxidase

10.9.4. recycling vitamin C & E

10.9.5. detoxification of chemicals

10.9.6. hypertension

10.10. reduce salt intake

10.10.1. balance electrolyte balance