Britain's early invaders (Ana Morando)

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Britain's early invaders (Ana Morando) by Mind Map: Britain's early invaders (Ana Morando)

1. 250.000 BC

1.1. 1st evidence of human life

1.1.1. Tools (flint)

2. C. 10.000 BC (end of Ice Age)


2.1.1. Hunters, gatherers, fishers

3. C. 5.000 BC (geographic changes)

3.1. Britain became a forested island

4. C. 3.000 BC (Neolithic/ New Stone Age)

4.1. 1st human settlement

4.1.1. Grew corn crops

4.1.2. Kept animals

5. from 3.000 BC to 55 BC

5.1. Chalkland people built "henges"

5.1.1. C. 2.400 BC Stonehenge was completed Took over 1.000 years to build Bluestones were brought from Wales LOCAL POLITICAL CAPITAL

5.1.2. C. 1.400 BC The land was overfarmed

5.2. After 2.400 BC

5.2.1. The "Beaker" people (Bronze Age) Military and metal-working skills Introduced new cereal: barley (solution to the farm crisis) LANGUAGE Indo-european CULTURE Spread through Britan Individual gravestones Pottery

5.3. C. 1.300 BC

5.3.1. Settled farming society became more important Because they Fed people Learned to fertilize the soils POWER SHIFT From Stonehenge to the Thames Valley and S.E. Britain From the henges to hill-forts

5.4. C. 700 BC

5.4.1. The Celts (arrived in waves during 700 years) Gaels Britons POLITICS Ruled by a warrior class Druids (priests) were important ARCHITECTURE Hill-forts TOOLS & WEAPONS Made of iron LANGUAGE Modern Celtic languages AGRICULTURE Could farm heavier soils SUCCESSFUL FARMERS ECONOMY Currency TRADE SOCIETY Pushed prior inhabitants to Wales, Ireland, and Scotland Social division Different tribes Gender equality

6. 55 BC to 409 AD

6.1. The Romans

6.1.1. 55 BC (Julius Caesar's first arrival) to 43 AD (the army's invasion) Reasons to invade The Celts of Britain were helping the Celts of Gaul Britain was an important food producer

6.1.2. AD 60-61 Boadicea She led a revolt against the Romans The revolt failed when she was captured

6.1.3. AD 80 Governor Agricola tought Latin Speech Writing Reading

6.1.4. AD 367 1st signs of Romans losing control over Britain Attacks by Celts of Caledonia In the European mainland, Germanic groups, Saxons and Franks, began to rain the coast of Gaul

6.1.5. AD 409 Rome pulled it last soldiers out of Britain The Romano-British & Romanised Celts were left alone to fight the new invaders

6.1.6. LAND DIVISION "Caledonia" could not be conquered Part of the Empire Romano-British culture spread across the S. half of Britan Upland areas Under Roman control Not developed

6.1.7. ARCHITECTURE ROADS (connected towns) 6 met in London predecesors of the modern main roads VILLAS Urbanised & walled towns Established by the Romans Citivas Public baths Mosaic panels AQUEDUCTS

6.1.8. LANGUAGE & CULTURAL LEGACY "Pretani" = "Britannia" READING & WRITING Names of the months Names of towns "Castra" = camp

6.1.9. ECONOMY COINS London ("Londinium") Most important trading centre of Northern Europe Exported corn

6.1.10. AGRICULTURE Creation of "villas" (large farms)

6.1.11. SOCIETY Growing differences between the rich and those who farmed the land Short life expectancy for the poor Approx. 5 million people lived in Britain when the Romans left

7. AD 430 - end of the 8th Century

7.1. Germanic Tribes

7.1.1. Angles East, and North Midlands England=land of the Angles

7.1.2. Saxons A band from the Thames Eastuary westwards

7.1.3. Jutes Kent, along the south coast

7.1.4. Celts Were driven to Wales & Scotland Culture

7.1.5. LANGUAGE & CULTURAL LEGACY "lord"=loaf ward "lady"=bread maker Days of the weeks "-ing"=the place of the family... "ham"=farm "Ton"=settlement

7.1.6. POLITICS Established kingdoms King Offa of Mercia Claimed kingship of the English King's Council "Witan" Sheriff Administrators of the new land divisions (shires/counties)

7.1.7. AGRICULTURE Cut down forested areas Technological changes The land was divided in 2/3 long stripes (this farming tradition remained for centuries)

7.1.8. SOCIETY Beginning of a class system King Lords Soldiers Warriors RELIGIOUS PEOPLE

7.1.9. RELIGION Christianity AD 597 AD 601 Celtic Church brough Christianity to the ordinary people POWER

8. End of the 8th century

8.1. Vikings

8.1.1. Came from Norway & Denmark

8.1.2. AD 842 London was raided

8.1.3. AD 865 They invaded and settled Accepted Christianity Didn't disturb the local population

8.1.4. KING ALFRED OF WESSEX 875 Only he held out againt the Vikings 878 Won a decisive battle 8 years later Built "burghs" (now spelt "boroughs"), walled settlements fo keep the Vikings out Became properous market towns

8.1.5. Viking Rule = Danelaw In East & North of England

8.1.6. ECONOMY 950 Saxon King Ethelred wanted to pay the Vikings to stay away