Britain's early invaders (Ana Morando)

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Britain's early invaders (Ana Morando) by Mind Map: Britain's early invaders (Ana Morando)

1. 250.000 BC

1.1. 1st evidence of human life

1.1.1. Tools (flint)

2. C. 10.000 BC (end of Ice Age)

2.1. NOMADS

2.1.1. Hunters, gatherers, fishers

3. C. 5.000 BC (geographic changes)

3.1. Britain became a forested island

4. C. 3.000 BC (Neolithic/ New Stone Age)

4.1. 1st human settlement

4.1.1. Grew corn crops

4.1.2. Kept animals

5. from 3.000 BC to 55 BC

5.1. Chalkland people built "henges"

5.1.1. C. 2.400 BC

5.1.1.1. Stonehenge was completed

5.1.1.1.1. Took over 1.000 years to build

5.1.1.1.2. Bluestones were brought from Wales

5.1.1.1.3. LOCAL POLITICAL CAPITAL

5.1.2. C. 1.400 BC

5.1.2.1. The land was overfarmed

5.2. After 2.400 BC

5.2.1. The "Beaker" people (Bronze Age)

5.2.1.1. Military and metal-working skills

5.2.1.2. Introduced new cereal: barley (solution to the farm crisis)

5.2.1.3. LANGUAGE

5.2.1.3.1. Indo-european

5.2.1.4. CULTURE

5.2.1.4.1. Spread through Britan

5.2.1.4.2. Individual gravestones

5.2.1.4.3. Pottery

5.3. C. 1.300 BC

5.3.1. Settled farming society became more important

5.3.1.1. Because they

5.3.1.1.1. Fed people

5.3.1.1.2. Learned to fertilize the soils

5.3.1.2. POWER SHIFT

5.3.1.2.1. From Stonehenge to the Thames Valley and S.E. Britain

5.3.1.2.2. From the henges to hill-forts

5.4. C. 700 BC

5.4.1. The Celts (arrived in waves during 700 years)

5.4.1.1. Gaels

5.4.1.2. Britons

5.4.1.3. POLITICS

5.4.1.3.1. Ruled by a warrior class

5.4.1.3.2. Druids (priests) were important

5.4.1.4. ARCHITECTURE

5.4.1.4.1. Hill-forts

5.4.1.5. TOOLS & WEAPONS

5.4.1.5.1. Made of iron

5.4.1.6. LANGUAGE

5.4.1.6.1. Modern Celtic languages

5.4.1.7. AGRICULTURE

5.4.1.7.1. Could farm heavier soils

5.4.1.7.2. SUCCESSFUL FARMERS

5.4.1.8. ECONOMY

5.4.1.8.1. Currency

5.4.1.8.2. TRADE

5.4.1.9. SOCIETY

5.4.1.9.1. Pushed prior inhabitants to Wales, Ireland, and Scotland

5.4.1.9.2. Social division

5.4.1.9.3. Different tribes

5.4.1.9.4. Gender equality

6. 55 BC to 409 AD

6.1. The Romans

6.1.1. 55 BC (Julius Caesar's first arrival) to 43 AD (the army's invasion)

6.1.1.1. Reasons to invade

6.1.1.1.1. The Celts of Britain were helping the Celts of Gaul

6.1.1.1.2. Britain was an important food producer

6.1.2. AD 60-61

6.1.2.1. Boadicea

6.1.2.1.1. She led a revolt against the Romans

6.1.2.1.2. The revolt failed when she was captured

6.1.3. AD 80

6.1.3.1. Governor Agricola tought Latin

6.1.3.1.1. Speech

6.1.3.1.2. Writing

6.1.3.1.3. Reading

6.1.4. AD 367

6.1.4.1. 1st signs of Romans losing control over Britain

6.1.4.2. Attacks by Celts of Caledonia

6.1.4.3. In the European mainland, Germanic groups, Saxons and Franks, began to rain the coast of Gaul

6.1.5. AD 409

6.1.5.1. Rome pulled it last soldiers out of Britain

6.1.5.2. The Romano-British & Romanised Celts were left alone to fight the new invaders

6.1.6. LAND DIVISION

6.1.6.1. "Caledonia"

6.1.6.1.1. could not be conquered

6.1.6.2. Part of the Empire

6.1.6.2.1. Romano-British culture spread across the S. half of Britan

6.1.6.3. Upland areas

6.1.6.3.1. Under Roman control

6.1.6.3.2. Not developed

6.1.7. ARCHITECTURE

6.1.7.1. ROADS (connected towns)

6.1.7.1.1. 6 met in London

6.1.7.1.2. predecesors of the modern main roads

6.1.7.2. VILLAS

6.1.7.3. Urbanised & walled towns

6.1.7.3.1. Established by the Romans

6.1.7.3.2. Citivas

6.1.7.4. Public baths

6.1.7.5. Mosaic panels

6.1.7.6. AQUEDUCTS

6.1.8. LANGUAGE & CULTURAL LEGACY

6.1.8.1. "Pretani" = "Britannia"

6.1.8.2. READING & WRITING

6.1.8.3. Names of the months

6.1.8.4. Names of towns

6.1.8.4.1. "Castra" = camp

6.1.9. ECONOMY

6.1.9.1. COINS

6.1.9.2. London ("Londinium")

6.1.9.2.1. Most important trading centre of Northern Europe

6.1.9.3. Exported corn

6.1.10. AGRICULTURE

6.1.10.1. Creation of "villas" (large farms)

6.1.11. SOCIETY

6.1.11.1. Growing differences between the rich and those who farmed the land

6.1.11.2. Short life expectancy for the poor

6.1.11.3. Approx. 5 million people lived in Britain when the Romans left

7. AD 430 - end of the 8th Century

7.1. Germanic Tribes

7.1.1. Angles

7.1.1.1. East, and North Midlands

7.1.1.2. England=land of the Angles

7.1.2. Saxons

7.1.2.1. A band from the Thames Eastuary westwards

7.1.3. Jutes

7.1.3.1. Kent, along the south coast

7.1.4. Celts

7.1.4.1. Were driven to Wales & Scotland

7.1.4.1.1. Culture

7.1.5. LANGUAGE & CULTURAL LEGACY

7.1.5.1. "lord"=loaf ward

7.1.5.2. "lady"=bread maker

7.1.5.3. Days of the weeks

7.1.5.4. "-ing"=the place of the family...

7.1.5.5. "ham"=farm

7.1.5.6. "Ton"=settlement

7.1.6. POLITICS

7.1.6.1. Established kingdoms

7.1.6.2. King Offa of Mercia

7.1.6.2.1. Claimed kingship of the English

7.1.6.3. King's Council

7.1.6.3.1. "Witan"

7.1.6.4. Sheriff

7.1.6.4.1. Administrators of the new land divisions (shires/counties)

7.1.7. AGRICULTURE

7.1.7.1. Cut down forested areas

7.1.7.2. Technological changes

7.1.7.2.1. The land was divided in 2/3 long stripes (this farming tradition remained for centuries)

7.1.8. SOCIETY

7.1.8.1. Beginning of a class system

7.1.8.1.1. King

7.1.8.1.2. Lords

7.1.8.1.3. Soldiers

7.1.8.1.4. Warriors

7.1.8.1.5. RELIGIOUS PEOPLE

7.1.9. RELIGION

7.1.9.1. Christianity

7.1.9.1.1. AD 597

7.1.9.1.2. AD 601

7.1.9.1.3. Celtic Church brough Christianity to the ordinary people

7.1.9.1.4. POWER

8. End of the 8th century

8.1. Vikings

8.1.1. Came from Norway & Denmark

8.1.2. AD 842

8.1.2.1. London was raided

8.1.3. AD 865

8.1.3.1. They invaded and settled

8.1.3.1.1. Accepted Christianity

8.1.3.1.2. Didn't disturb the local population

8.1.4. KING ALFRED OF WESSEX

8.1.4.1. 875

8.1.4.1.1. Only he held out againt the Vikings

8.1.4.2. 878

8.1.4.2.1. Won a decisive battle

8.1.4.2.2. 8 years later

8.1.4.3. Built "burghs" (now spelt "boroughs"), walled settlements fo keep the Vikings out

8.1.4.3.1. Became properous market towns

8.1.5. Viking Rule = Danelaw

8.1.5.1. In East & North of England

8.1.6. ECONOMY

8.1.6.1. 950

8.1.6.1.1. Saxon King Ethelred wanted to pay the Vikings to stay away