GLOBAL TOURISM

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GLOBAL TOURISM by Mind Map: GLOBAL TOURISM

1. DEFINITION

1.1. Tourist

1.1.1. pp travel to stay outside >24 hrs for < 1 yr for leisure, not business

1.2. Tourism

1.2.1. activities of tourist can be categorized into international tourism & domestic tourism

2. TYPES (place of interest)

2.1. SCENIC BEAUTY

2.1.1. honeypot tourism

2.1.1.1. WHAT

2.1.1.1.1. DEFINITION

2.1.1.1.2. TYPE

2.1.1.1.3. CHARAC

2.1.1.2. eg:

2.1.1.2.1. natural environment: Halong bay or man-made landmarks Eiffel tower

2.2. GOOD FACILITIES

2.2.1. MICE facilities

2.2.1.1. WHAT

2.2.1.1.1. DEFINITION

2.2.1.1.2. CHARAC

2.2.1.1.3. eg: Singapore (top Asia 10yrs | 3.2 mil biz traveller 2002

2.2.2. Medical facilities

2.2.2.1. WHAT

2.2.2.1.1. DEFINITION

2.2.2.1.2. eg: Singapore (complex surgical) & Seoul (cosmetic surgery)

2.2.3. Theme parks

2.2.3.1. WHAT

2.2.3.1.1. DEFINITION

2.2.3.1.2. CHARAC

2.2.3.1.3. eg: disneyland

2.3. RICH CULTURE

2.3.1. Heritage tourism

2.3.1.1. WHAT

2.3.1.1.1. DEFINITION

2.3.1.1.2. eg: Tower of London, Buckingham Palace, Angkor Wat

2.3.2. Film-induced tourism

2.3.2.1. WHAT

2.3.2.1.1. DEFINITION

2.3.2.1.2. eg: "The Lord of the Rings" - New Zealand | "Avatar" - China

2.3.3. Pilgrimage Torism

2.3.3.1. WHAT

2.3.3.1.1. DEFINITION

2.3.3.1.2. CHARAC

2.3.3.1.3. eg: Vatican City, Jerusalem

2.4. PLACE OF CONFLICT

2.4.1. Dark tourism

2.4.1.1. WHAT

2.4.1.1.1. DEFINITION

2.4.1.1.2. eg: Ground Zero in NKC (world trade center before terrorist attack)

3. ROLES AFFECT

3.1. GOVERNMENT

3.1.1. directly involved in planning, funding, building infrastructure => support tourism

3.1.1.1. (airport, roads, port)

3.1.2. set up government agencies to devise strategy -> attract more domestic & inter tourist

3.1.2.1. (eg: annual events)

3.1.3. provide high levels of safety & security

3.2. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION

3.2.1. def

3.2.1.1. group of inter organisation of diff countries work tgt for common purpose

3.2.2. help design guidlines for need of eco dev & envi sustainability => influence tourism industry in positive/negative way

3.2.3. positive opinion abt political, eco, health, safety => encourage tourist

3.2.4. eg: OECD (Organistion for Economic Co-operation & Dev Tourism Committee UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Org) WHO (World Health Or)

3.3. MEDIA

3.3.1. def

3.3.1.1. channels through which news and inf are communicated to the public

3.3.2. media report influence pp's decision to visit in pov/negative ways

3.3.2.1. positive report (eg: high level of safety, good facilities) => encourage

3.3.2.2. negative report (eg: diseases, political instability) => deter

3.3.3. raise awareness destinations are previously unpopular

3.3.4. Travel writer - pp write reviews and publish in guidebook, internet => influence reader's decision

3.3.5. eg: TripAdvisor, Expedia, Agoda

4. TOURISM CHANGING

4.1. GLOBAL TOURISM INDUSTRY TREND

4.1.1. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM

4.1.1.1. TREND: increase both origin & destination since 1980s

4.1.1.2. in ORIGINS

4.1.1.2.1. developed countries

4.1.1.2.2. developing countries

4.1.1.3. in DESTINATION

4.1.1.3.1. before 1908s, most developed regions were most popular (81% 1980) => still remain top popular tourist des today but dipped slightly

4.1.1.3.2. Asia Pacific region - risen rapidly => world's second most visited region => forecast rise at faster rate

4.1.2. DOMESTIC TOURISM

4.1.2.1. TREND: increase growth & remain most popular form of tourism

4.1.2.2. 2010: 83% of tourist arrivals & 69% of overnight hotel stay worldwide

4.2. EVOLUTION FORM OF TOURISM

4.2.1. TREND: from mass tourism to niche tourism

4.2.2. MASS TOURISM

4.2.2.1. def: tour involves large no.tourists visiting tgt

4.2.2.2. often take package holidays

4.2.2.2.1. a tour arranged by travel agency (with transportation, accommodation, tour guide)

4.2.3. NICHE TOURISM

4.2.3.1. def: special-interest tourism (based on area, interest, activity) by individual travelers/package tours

4.2.3.2. eg: Whale-watching Hawaii, Bungee jumping - NZ

4.2.3.3. ECOTOURISM

4.2.3.3.1. responsible travel to natural area that conserves the envi & improves well-being of local pp

4.2.3.3.2. undisturbed natural areas, raise funds for ecological conservation

4.2.3.3.3. direct financial benefits to loval pp, respect diff cultures & lifestyle

4.2.3.3.4. eg: Waitomo Caves - NZ

4.2.4. DESTINATONS

4.2.4.1. SHORT-HAUL

4.2.4.1.1. destination are short distance from tourist's home country can reach by car, bus, train, flight (<5hrs)

4.2.4.1.2. eg: hongkong, thailand

4.2.4.2. LONG-HAUL

4.2.4.2.1. destination are long distance from tourist's country flight > 5hrs

4.2.4.2.2. eg: Europe, USA

4.3. REASON OF GROWTH

4.3.1. DEVELOP IN TECHNOLOGY

4.3.1.1. Better transport

4.3.1.1.1. WHY

4.3.1.1.2. eg

4.3.1.2. Access inf easy

4.3.1.2.1. WHY

4.3.1.2.2. eg:

4.3.2. DEMAND FACTOR

4.3.2.1. Disposable income

4.3.2.1.1. WHAT

4.3.2.1.2. HOW

4.3.2.1.3. eg: China, India

4.3.2.2. Leisure time

4.3.2.2.1. WHAT

4.3.2.2.2. HOW

4.3.2.3. Changing lifestyle

4.3.2.3.1. WHAT

4.3.2.3.2. HOW

4.3.3. DESTINATION FACTOR

4.3.3.1. Attraction

4.3.3.1.1. WHAT

4.3.3.1.2. HOW

4.3.3.2. Infrastructure & services

4.3.3.2.1. WHAT

4.3.3.2.2. HOW

4.3.3.2.3. eg: Hk, SG

4.3.3.3. access infor

4.3.3.3.1. WHAT

4.3.3.3.2. HOW

4.4. CAUSE FLUCTUATION

4.4.1. WHAT

4.4.1.1. refer irregular rising & falling of tourist no. over a period of time

4.4.2. DISASTER

4.4.2.1. WHAT

4.4.2.1.1. event cause great damage to properties, injuries & loss of lives

4.4.2.2. HOW

4.4.2.2.1. discourage tourist cuz poses greater risk to safety => great promotional effort

4.4.2.2.2. discourage pp from travelling oversea => affect tourist revenue

4.4.2.3. eg: JAPAN (earthquake, tsunami)

4.4.3. RECESSIONS

4.4.3.1. WHAT

4.4.3.1.1. period of slowdown in eco activities

4.4.3.2. HOW

4.4.3.2.1. triggered by factor (as sharp increase in prices of goods, financial mrk prob, decline export => affect both region & global

4.4.3.2.2. pp lose jobs, incomes => tend to stop travelling => reduce spending

4.4.3.2.3. domestics tourism become popular (cuz spend less on transportation => contribute country's eco

4.4.3.3. eg: European Sovereign Debt Crisis 2010, Global crisis 2008-2010

4.4.4. POLITICAL SITUATIONS

4.4.4.1. WHAT

4.4.4.1.1. unfavourable political situation that discourage tourist arrivals in destination

4.4.4.2. HOW

4.4.4.2.1. political conflict => disagreement bt diff groups of pp => result in war

4.4.4.2.2. when political conflict => can pose danger to them => cancel travel plan

4.4.4.2.3. after political conflict => government need more effort rebuild reputation, infrastructure, service

4.4.4.3. eg: 2011 Libya, Egypt

4.4.5. DESEASES

4.4.5.1. WHAT

4.4.5.1.1. sudden & widespread occurrence of disease in a area

4.4.5.2. HOW

4.4.5.2.1. discourage pp from visiting cuz not want to risk getting infected

4.4.5.2.2. government agencies, inter organisation (WHO) issue warning to traveler

4.4.5.3. eg: SARS (2003), H1N1 (2009)

5. HOW TO DEVELOPE

5.1. WHAT IMPACT?

5.1.1. ECONOMIC

5.1.1.1. AD

5.1.1.1.1. employment opportunity

5.1.1.1.2. Growth income

5.1.1.1.3. Dev infrastructure & facilities

5.1.1.2. DISAD

5.1.1.2.1. Economic leakages

5.1.1.2.2. Underuse of facilities

5.1.1.2.3. seasonal employment

5.1.1.2.4. Shortage of services

5.1.2. SOCIO-CULTURAL

5.1.2.1. AD

5.1.2.1.1. Preservation local customs & heritage

5.1.2.2. DISAD

5.1.2.2.1. Dilution local customs & heritage

5.1.2.2.2. Increased crime

5.1.3. ENVIRONMENTAL

5.1.3.1. AD

5.1.3.1.1. conversion natural enviroment

5.1.3.2. DISAD

5.1.3.2.1. Vandalism

5.1.3.2.2. Littering & population

5.1.3.2.3. Destruction of habitat

5.1.3.2.4. Carbon footprint

5.1.3.2.5. Increase Congestion

5.2. HOW MANAGE IMPACT?

5.2.1. FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT & SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

5.2.2. TENSION BETWEEN TOURIST &

5.2.2.1. LOCALS

5.2.2.1.1. WHAT

5.2.2.1.2. eg: island of Bali (Indo) -65% of island's water supply => water shortage for local

5.2.2.2. ENVIRONMENT

5.2.2.2.1. WHAT

5.2.2.2.2. eg: Peru - Machu Picchu- eroded slowly by hiking activities => polluted w rubbish, noise pollution,

5.2.2.3. MANAGE TENSIONS

5.2.2.3.1. government can set up agencies/organisation to resolve tension & balance the need

5.2.2.3.2. some solution

5.2.3. WHO RESPONSIBILITY

5.2.3.1. LOCAL communities

5.2.3.1.1. WHAT

5.2.3.1.2. EG:

5.2.3.1.3. STRENGTH

5.2.3.1.4. LIMITATION

5.2.3.2. Visitors

5.2.3.2.1. WHAT

5.2.3.2.2. EG:

5.2.3.2.3. STRENGTH

5.2.3.2.4. LIMITATION

5.2.3.3. Tour Operatiors

5.2.3.3.1. WHAT

5.2.3.3.2. EG:

5.2.3.3.3. STRENGTH

5.2.3.3.4. LIMITATION

5.2.3.4. NGOs

5.2.3.4.1. WHAT

5.2.3.4.2. EG:

5.2.3.4.3. STRENGTH

5.2.3.4.4. LIMITATION

5.2.3.5. Planning authorities

5.2.3.5.1. WHAT

5.2.3.5.2. EG:

5.2.3.5.3. STRENGTH

5.2.3.5.4. LIMITATION