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Heart Emergencies by Mind Map: Heart Emergencies

1. Stroke

1.1. What Is it?

1.1.1. The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood flow or rupture of an artery to the brain.

1.2. Px at risk

1.2.1. Px with High blood pressure.

1.2.2. Diabetes Px.

1.2.3. Atherosclerosis Px

1.2.4. Px with elevated cholesterol levels.

1.2.5. Px with Obesity.

1.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

1.3.1. F.A.S.T. Test

1.3.1.1. F means face -- If one side of the face droops, it’s a sign of a possible stroke

1.3.1.2. A means arms -- If the person cannot hold both arms out, it’s another possible stroke sign

1.3.1.3. S means speech -- Slurring words and poor understanding of simple sentences is another possible stroke sign

1.3.1.4. T means time -- If any of the FAS signs are positive, it’s Time to call 9-1-1 immediately

1.4. Pharmacological Tx

1.4.1. Aspirin

1.4.1.1. 160 mg/day prior dental appointment or after seeing signs of a possible stroke.

1.4.2. TPA

1.4.2.1. Can be given up to 4.5 hours after stroke symptoms begin. ( IV )

2. Heart Attack

2.1. What is it?

2.1.1. The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of blood supply is usually caused by a complete blockage of a coronary artery, one of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart muscle.

2.2. PX at Risk

2.2.1. Smokers

2.2.2. High blood pressure.

2.2.3. High levels of cholesterol or triglycerides in the blood.

2.2.4. Obesity.

2.2.5. Diabetes.

2.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

2.3.1. Do CPR – or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

2.3.1.1. Between 100 and 120 compressions per minute.

2.3.2. Healthy Diet

2.3.3. Excercise

2.3.4. Don't smoke

2.4. Pharmacological Tx

2.4.1. Aspirin

2.4.1.1. 81 mg/day to prevent a Heart Atack

2.4.1.2. An adult aspirin that contains approximately 325 mg, if the Px is having a heart attack.

3. Tachycardia

3.1. What is it?

3.1.1. Tachycardia is a common type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats faster than normal while at rest.

3.2. Px at Risk

3.2.1. High or low blood pressure

3.2.2. Anemia

3.2.3. Smoking

3.2.4. Hyperthyroidism

3.2.5. Diabetes

3.2.6. Heart Disease

3.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

3.3.1. Don't smoke

3.3.2. Exsercise

3.3.3. Control Stress

3.3.4. Reduce Caffeine

3.4. Pharmacological Tx

3.4.1. Bretilio.

3.4.1.1. Adultos: 5-10 mg / kg IM sin diluir. La dosis puede ser repetida en 1-2 horas; a partir de entonces dar cada 6-8 horas

3.4.1.2. Niños: 2-5 mg / kg IM en una sola dosis. La dosis de mantenimiento es de 5 mg / kg IM administrada cada 6-8 horas.

3.4.2. Amiodarona (Cordarone, Pacerone)

3.4.2.1. 300 mg se administra diluyendo 2 ampollas en 94 ml de suero glucosado 5% e infundir en 20-30 min.

3.4.3. Sotalol (Betapace)

3.4.3.1. 80 mg/día dosis única.

3.4.4. Ibutilida (Corvert)

3.4.4.1. Adults> 60 kg: 1 mg intravenous infusion over 10 min. If the arrhythmia is not controlled within 10 minutes after the end of the infusion, the dose can be repeated under the same conditions.

4. Bradicardya

4.1. What is it?

4.1.1. Bradycardia is a condition typically defined wherein an individual has a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

4.2. Px at Risk

4.2.1. High blood pressure

4.2.2. Infection of heart tissue (myocarditis)

4.2.3. A complication of heart surgery

4.2.4. Congenital heart defect

4.2.5. Psychological stress or anxiety

4.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

4.3.1. Exercise and eat a healthy diet

4.3.2. Keep blood pressure and cholesterol under control.

4.3.3. Don't smoke

4.3.4. Don't use recreational drugs.

4.4. Pharmacological Tx

4.4.1. Atropine

4.4.1.1. 0.5-1.0 mg given intravenously at intervals of 3 to 5 minutes, up to a dose of 0.04 mg / kg.

5. Tone Arrhythmia

5.1. What is it?

5.1.1. Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) from the upper or lower chambers of the heart are complications of pulmonary hypertension. These can lead to palpitations, dizziness or fainting and can be fatal.

5.2. Px at Risk

5.2.1. Abnormal levels of potassium or other substances in the body

5.2.2. Heart attack or myocardial damage from a past heart attack

5.2.3. Heart disease that is present at birth (congenital)

5.2.4. Heart failure or an enlarged heart

5.2.5. Hyperthyroidism

5.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

5.3.1. Electric shock therapy (defibrillation or cardioversion)

5.3.2. Implantation of a temporary cardiac pacemaker

5.4. Pharmacological Tx

5.4.1. Atenolol

5.4.1.1. 50 mg per day, the effective dose is usually 100 mg in a single oral dose or in two doses of 50 mg per day.

6. Akute Hipotension

6.1. What is it?

6.1.1. When blood pressure reading lower than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) for the top number (systolic) or 60 mm Hg for the bottom number (diastolic) is generally considered low blood pressure.

6.2. Px at risk

6.2.1. Pregnancy

6.2.2. Heart problems

6.2.3. Endocrine problems.

6.2.4. Dehydration

6.2.5. Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)

6.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

6.3.1. Give the Px a little bit of Salt

6.3.2. Drink water

6.3.3. Wear compression stockings.

6.4. Pharmacological Tx

6.4.1. Fludorcortisona

6.4.1.1. 0.05 mg y 0.2 mg per day

6.4.2. Orvaten

6.4.2.1. 2,5 mg/8 h

7. Akute Hipertension

7.1. What is it?

7.1.1. Also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

7.2. Px at risk

7.2.1. Overweight

7.2.2. Family history of the disease

7.2.3. Drugs

7.3. Non Pharmacological Tx

7.4. Pharmacological Tx

7.4.1. Beta blocker diuretics

7.4.2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors angiotensin II receptor blockers (also called BRA)

7.4.3. Channel blockers