Prostate Cancer

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Prostate Cancer by Mind Map: Prostate Cancer

1. Pathophysiological Etiology

1.1. Cells in the prostate mutate to cancer cell in the semen-secreting gland

1.2. ZIP1 is responsible for zinc transporting in the prostate, needed to produce citrate that produces semen. In PC zinc in no longer present.

1.3. Effects androgens in the prostate to include: Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dihydrotestosterone

1.4. Typically classified as adenocarcinomas or glandular cancers

1.5. Gene mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, HPC1, HPC2, HPCX, and CAPB

1.6. Linked to Immunity factor, with new studies showing links to inflammation.

2. Causative Factors

2.1. High blood pressure diagnosis

2.2. Obesity, age, and family hx

2.3. smoking

2.4. African-American men are most commonly diagnosied

2.5. previous testicular cancer diagnosis

3. Risk Factors

3.1. Obesity, Age, and Family Hx

3.2. First Degree relatives are twice as likely to be diagnosed

3.3. Age 70 and greater is most common

3.4. Dietary associated with low Vitamin D intake

3.5. Agent Orange exposure is twice as likely to be diagnosed

3.6. STD exposure to include: gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis have increased risk

4. Diagnostic Tests

4.1. Radiological Testing: CT, Ultrasound, and MRI

4.2. PSA blood test levels

4.3. Digital Rectal Exam

4.4. Biopsy of the prostate is for full confimation

4.5. Transrectal Ultrasonography

5. Common Findings

5.1. Typically metastasizes into bone, lymph node, rectum, and bladder cancers

5.2. 2nd most diagnosed cancer in men, and 6th leading cause of death in men

5.3. More common in developed countries

5.4. Hematuria

5.5. Urinary dysfunction

5.6. Link between high levels of testosterone being causative

5.7. sexual function with inability to achieve erection or painful ejaculation

6. Treatments

6.1. Based on the Gleason score of 2 to 10 to determine the extent of treatment.

6.2. Active surveillance which is for low risk cancer and results in observation

6.3. radiation therapy is 1st choice

6.4. external beam radiation therapy, particle therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound

6.5. pharmaceutically: chemotherapy, oral and IV chemotherapeutic drugs, hormonal therapy

6.6. radical prostectomy or removal of prostate