Reasons of forgetting

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Reasons of forgetting by Mind Map: Reasons of forgetting

1. Interference

1.1. One memory disrupting the process of recalling another one

1.1.1. Retroactive Interference new memories blocks old knowledge Georg Muller and Pilzecker (1900) gave pps list of syllables to learn for 6 min. Then after an inertial, they asked to recall them. During the interval first group had a task and the other one did not. The first group performed worse than the second.

1.1.2. Proactive Interference old knowledge blocks new memories Benton Underwood (1957) analyzed findings form studies when pps were learning lists of words. If they memorised 10 or more lists, the could recall only 20%. If they learned only one list, they could recall 70%.

1.2. Occurs when two memories have some similarity

1.2.1. two languages

2. Retrieval failure (cue-depending forgetting)

2.1. Failure to find an item of information because you have insufficient cues

2.2. The encoding specificity principle introduced by Tulving and Pearlstone (1966) demonstrated the value of retrieval cues in study when pps had to learn 48 words belonging to 12 categories. In the free recall condition 40% of words were recalled, in the cued-recall condition participants recalled 60% of the words. It proves that the cues have been explicitly or implicitly encoded.

2.2.1. Content-dependent forgetting This is when you forget things due to the absence of contextual (physical) cues, such as location During an exam when students are in a different room they might forget the information

2.2.2. State-dependent forgetting This is when you forget things due to the absence of mental state cues If person would memorise information drunk, they are more likely to remember it when they are drunk