Molecular Biology

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Molecular Biology by Mind Map: Molecular Biology

1. Molecules to metabolism

1.1. Carbon Atoms

1.1.1. Properties

1.1.1.1. 4 covalent bonds

1.1.1.2. many stable compounds

1.1.2. Carbon compounds

1.1.2.1. Carbohydrates

1.1.2.2. Lipids

1.1.2.3. Proteins

1.1.2.4. Nucleic acids

1.2. Metabolism

1.2.1. All enzyme-catalysed reactions

1.2.2. Types

1.2.2.1. Anabolism

1.2.2.1.1. convert small, simple molecules into larger, more complex ones

1.2.2.2. Carabolism

1.2.2.2.1. convert large, complex molecules to smaller, simpler ones

2. Water

2.1. Structure

2.1.1. Polar covalent bond

2.1.2. Hydrogen bonds form between molecules

2.1.2.1. positive end of one water molecule attracts the negative end of another

2.2. Properties

2.2.1. Cohesive

2.2.1.1. molecules of the same type are attracted to each other

2.2.1.2. e.g. forms into droplets when split

2.2.2. Adhesive

2.2.2.1. hydrogen bonds between 2 different kinds of molecules

2.2.2.2. e.g. water column in vascular tissues

2.2.2.2.1. cohesion between water molecules pulls water molecules up

2.2.2.2.2. adhesion between water molecules to inside of vascular tube keeps column from dropping within the tube

2.2.3. Thermal

2.2.3.1. high specific heat

2.2.3.1.1. absorb or give off much heat without changing temperature greatly

2.2.3.2. high heat of vaporization

2.2.3.2.1. absorb much heat when evaporating

2.2.3.3. high heat of fusion

2.2.3.3.1. change liquid water to ice

2.2.3.4. many hydrogen bonds need to form/break to change temperature or state

2.2.3.5. water has higher specific heat, latent heat and boiling and melting point than methane

2.2.3.5.1. water is polar while methane is nonpolar

2.2.4. Solvent

2.2.4.1. dissolve polar or charged organic and inorganic substances, including carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids

2.2.5. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic substances

2.2.5.1. hydrophilic

2.2.5.1.1. chemically attracted to water

2.2.5.2. hydrophobic

2.2.5.2.1. insoluble in water

3. Carbohydrates

3.1. Monosaccharides: monomers of carbohydrates

3.1.1. pentoses

3.1.2. hexoses