Improve ocean health and marine biodiversity

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Improve ocean health and marine biodiversity by Mind Map: Improve ocean health and marine biodiversity

1. Seventh step: Loss of Marine Biodiversity (Topic from second step):

1.1. The decline of marine biodiversity

1.1.1. Climate change due to human activity has a direct impact on marine species. It alters their abundance, diversity and distribution. Their feeding, development and breeding, as well as the relationships between species are affected.

1.1.2. The loss of marine biodiversity is weakening the ocean ecosystem and its ability to withstand disturbances, to adapt to climate change and to play its role as a global ecological and climate regulator.

1.1.3. Rising temperatures lead to different behaviour patterns according to species. Some adapt to temperature changes, while others migrate toward the poles or to new areas

1.1.4. The ocean acidification, caused by an increasing absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), has a direct impact on the marine organisms with calcareous skeletons or shells.

1.1.5. Extreme climatic events deplete natural environments, for example by erosion and flooding. They disturb marine life in coastal areas, particularly in certain coastal habitats such as mangroves and seagrass beds, which are vital breeding grounds as well as potential CO2 capture zones.

1.1.6. Losses in biodiversity also imply a loss of genes and molecules that are potentially valuable for medical research and industry.


1.2.1. We still have the same issues overall: - For inhabitants of the ocean, human activity had many bad consequences such as less diversity, diseappearance of speccies, relocation of others. - This is due to ocean acidification and change of climate. - For humans, not only fishes can be unhealthy to eat (espacially for developing countries) but it also has other consequences such as natural disasters.

2. First Step: Search on Google

2.1. I found 3 articles that look interesting: I will start my researches with those. The research was "improve ocean health and marine biodiversity".

2.1.1. Study of the WHO (World Health Organizaiton)

2.1.2. How laws around the world help improve ocean health How Laws Around the World Help Improve Ocean Health

2.1.3. Article: 5 Keys to Improving Ocean Health 5 Keys to Improving Ocean Health

3. Second Step: Study of the WHO:


3.1.1. The “health” of the global ocean is both affected by and a threat to human activities.

3.1.2. Society benefits from the seas. The coastal waters provide employment, commerce, cultural, social interaction and artistic activities. They offer a variety of social, economic, health, cultural and environmental benefits to human livelihoods (2).

3.1.3. The best-documented and direct benefits to human health and well-being from the ocean are linked to the consumption of fish and seafood, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and non-terrestrial animal proteins.


3.2.1. Marine pollution and the loss of marine biodiversity are affecting the viability of marine ecosystems, the availability of fish stocks and the potential for the discovery of new pharmaceutical compounds and other marine natural products from marine bioprospecting. These impacts potentially affect human health and well-being in both the short and the long term.

3.2.2. Marine pollution can poison us.

3.2.3. There is an increase in events linked to climate change such as cyclones and rising sea levels and the devastation caused by tsunamis is expected to be greater when sea levels rise, posing risks to human health settlements and security.


3.3.1. Currently, wild caught and farmed seafood provides more than 3.1 billion people worldwide with almost 20% of their average per capita intake of animal protein.

3.3.2. The global share of marine fish stocks that are within biologically sustainable levels declined from 90% in 1974 to 69% in 2013 (26).

3.3.3.  Overfishing now threatens about 33% of the world’s fish stock, whereas in the 1970s, less than 10% was overfished


3.4.1. We NEED the Ocean as they provide us vital resources that are essential for almost everyone in the planet: this includes food, jobs, sight-seing and environmental benefits mostly.

3.4.2. For a very long time, oceans were not polluted, but during the last century, we have done terrible things to it: Overfishing now threatens 33% of the world's fish stock [==> Let's dig in this in a further step to understand what happens] Pollution is so important that we can now be poisoned by what we eat [Let's dig in what we call the 7th continent (personal knowledge). From the study, it is said that the lost of marine biodiversity is affecting the viability of marine ecosystems [Let's find out how deep is this lost of marine biodiversity]


3.5.1. 3 topics to look for: Overfishing 7th continent Lost of marine biodiversity

4. Third Step: How laws around the world help improve ocean health?

4.1. ISSUE:

4.1.1. Fishing communities in Baja California Sur, like the small village of Cabo Pulmo, were threatened as fewer and fewer fish were landed. Keystone species like sharks, the marine ecosystem’s apex predators, disappeared, and coral reefs became covered in algae and experienced frequent bleaching events. Conflicts erupted over access to ever-more-limited resources.


4.2.1. Work to establish a protected area around Cabo Pulmo’s reef—banning fishing to allow the reef and fish stocks to recover.

4.3. RESULT:

4.3.1. Protected from human exploitation, the coral reef of Cabo Pulmo became once again an oasis of rich biodiversity. Fish biomass increased by 460%, similar to that of pristine coral reefs that have never been fished. In addition, whale sharks, manta rays, humpback whales and endangered sea turtle populations rebounded. Today, divers from around the world visit Cabo Pulmo to see the extraordinary marine life there, and local fishers reap the benefits of replenished fish stocks that swim outside the Natural Protected Area. Local incomes have improved substantially.


4.4.1. In several years, the whole place change drastically due to the measures. It clearly shows that it's possible to help ocean to recover.

4.4.2. Topic to look for: What are the rules in the world about ocean health?

5. Sixth step: 7th continent (Topic from second step):

5.1. Figures from 2018: The plastic continent floating in the Pacific

5.1.1. It is a constantly growing continent of rubbish measuring some 1.6 million km2 and containing 80,000 tonnes of plastic, according to a scientific study published in the journal Nature in 2018. It is now more than three times the size of France, to give some idea of its scale.

5.1.2. Scientific evidence points to Asia as being the main contributor of rubbish to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, with another big factor being the increase in industrial fishing in the world's biggest ocean. According to the study published in Nature, two thirds of the items collected during the research contained text written in Japanese or Chinese — with a total of nine languages being identified — and the oldest piece of rubbish dated from the end of the 70s.


5.2.1. To fight this phenomenea, there are several initiatives that have been engaged: Plastic Free Waters whose objective is to to eradicate plastic from water bodies in the region. 4Ocean : collects plastic in the ocean. Seabin: work to reduce pollution in docks.

5.3. The “the seventh continent of plastic”

5.3.1. In total, the gyres contain 7 million metric tons of waste. The vortex of waste in the North Pacific could cover an area the size of Europe in 20 years. Those figures are from 2014...

5.3.2. It takes 450 years for a plastic bag to decompose.

5.3.3. Foundation Tara Expeditions is working on subjects similar to this.

6. Fourth step: 5 keys to improving Ocean Health

6.1. Protect Forage Fish

6.1.1. The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act should be strengthened to require science-based catch limits for forage fish that ensure abundant food sources for seabirds, marine mammals, and bigger fish such as Pacific salmon and Atlantic cod.

6.2. Conserve habitat

6.2.1. If you want to conserve fish to help keep our oceans healthy, it’s sensible to start by protecting the places they need to find shelter, eat, and reproduce. Deep-sea corals off the Atlantic coast are a prime example, a place where an immense array of fish, crabs, and squid live among otherworldly creatures such as sea spiders; the long-nosed chimera, or ghost shark; and the Dumbo octopus.

6.3. Minimize waste

6.3.1. Almost one-fifth of all fish caught in American waters is captured unintentionally. Often, these fish, known as bycatch, are thrown overboard dead or dying. This is not only a blow to the species themselves and the ecosystems they inhabit, but it represents a huge economic cost to fishermen and coastal fishing communities.

6.3.2. On the Oregon coast, entrepreneur Sara Skamser responded to the collapse of groundfish in 2000 by working with fishermen and scientists to devise nets that reduce bycatch while keeping fishermen in business.

6.4. Relocation:

6.4.1. The treatment of goliath grouper by federal and Florida fishery managers demonstrates a visionary example of precautionary management. These massive fish—some can grow up to 800 pounds—were nearly wiped out in the 1990s due to overfishing and habitat loss. Today, after fishing restrictions allowed goliath grouper populations to slowly recover in the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, some people are eager to catch and keep them again.

6.5. Conclusion:

6.5.1. Several things are possible to improve ocean health: - Protection of forage fish (we can look at The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act). - Protection of deep sea coral => see third step for an exemple. - A lot of fishes are catched without that being intentional. Let's look at the work of Sara Skamser. - It is possible to apply relocation in an other space to protect spaces. Example of Goliath Grouper.

7. Fifth step: Overfishing (Topic from second step):

7.1. Facts & Figures: The cold hard facts about overfishing - Fish Forward (WWF)

7.1.1. Today, each person eats on average 19.2kg of fish a year – around twice as much as 50 years ago.

7.1.2. About 38.5 million tonnes of bycatch results from current preferred fishing practice each year (link with step 5)

7.1.3. Almost 30% of fish stocks commercially fished are over-fished

7.1.4. In the North East Atlantic and nearby seas, 39% of fish stocks are classified as overfished. In the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea there is sufficient data for 85 stocks, which shows that 88% of these (75) are overfished

7.1.5. The European Union is the world’s primary importer of fish


7.2.1. Overall, there seems to be a huge difference between our actuals needs and the actual fishing. A very huge proportion of fish are actually wasted, whether because of overfishing or bycatching.

7.2.2. It seems that results highly depend from the region where the fishes are fished, thus it would maybe useful to have an application to track down where the fish come from, and how dangerous it could be for the Ocean?

8. Eighth Step: What are the rules in the world about ocean health?

8.1. Protection of marine environment and biodiversity:

8.1.1. To ensure that shipping is cleaner and greener, IMO has adopted regulations to address the emission of air pollutants from ships and has adopted binding energy-efficiency measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping.

8.1.2. The United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), particularly through its Regional Seas Programme, acts to protect oceans and seas and promote the sustainable use of marine resources.

8.1.3. In 2017, the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code) entered into force. The Polar Code covers the full range of design, construction, equipment, operational, training, search and rescue and environmental protection matters relevant to ships operating in the inhospitable waters surrounding the two poles.

9. Ninth Step: The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act

9.1. It is the main law about fishing protection in the US: Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Management & Why it Matters to the Great Lakes

9.1.1. Annual Catch limits

9.1.2. Recommandations of scientifc advisor

9.1.3. More accountable measures to evaluate how many fishes are catch.

9.1.4. Overfishing prohibited


9.2.1. Each country has to do some parts of the job itself, which is the case for US with the Magnuson Stevens Fishery Management and Conservation Act. The Overall idea is to have better count of the fishes to ensure that each population can live on. Main takeaway is that the more people are aware of this, the more they can have a respectuous consumption of fish.

10. Tenth Step: Goliath Grouper.

10.1. In Search of Monster Fish

10.1.1. Goliath grouper were nearly wiped out in Florida by the 1990s due to severe overfishing and habitat loss. A 1990 moratorium stopped anyone from catching and keeping the massive beasts, which can grow up to 8 feet long.

10.1.2. Today, the fish are recovering. Fishermen spot the species more often in a greater number of places throughout Florida. The behemoths even steal prized catches out of the hands of spear fishermen or off fishing lines, evoking the battle between David and Goliath.

10.1.3. Main point here is that it is possible to intervene to protect species, and this example is the proof. Strong regulations can lead to protection and survival of a species.



11.1.1. This is the main idea from this work: we need ocean and fish and there is not denying in the fact that fishing is essential. However, we need to take car of what we eat, where it comes from, and how respectuous it was.

11.1.2. Main difficulty for consumers is to identify well where the fish comes from. They need a clear system in which you can easily tell whether your consumption is going to be respectuous of the environment or not.