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Sociolinguistics by Mind Map: Sociolinguistics

1. English as a second or foreign language

1.1. Kackru's circles

1.1.1. "If English is not your mother tongue, why should you want to learn it, or give it special status in your county?" 1. Historical reasons 2. Internal political reasons 3. External economic reasons 4. Practical reasons 5. Intellectual reasons 6. Entertainment reasons 7. Some wrong reasons

1.1.2. THE EXPANDING CIRCLE --> EFL varieties: norm-dependent English learnt as foreign language in schools and institutes of higher education + 1,000 speakers China, Japan, South America, Caribbean countries, Egypt, Nepal

1.1.3. THE OUTER CIRCLE --> ESL varieties: norm-developing; example: new Englishes English special status as "official" language +/- 885 million speakers Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, India, Nigeria

1.1.4. THE INNER CIRCLE --> ENL varieties: norm-providing English native language (to the majority of the population) +/- 388 million speakers USA, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand

1.1.5. Problems with inner vs. outer circle: gap theory-practice - Distinction between circles not watertight - Some countries mixture L1-ESL Canada, South Africa, India, ... - Multidialectism and translanguaging

1.1.6. Problems with outer vs. expanding circle: gap theory-practice -Some countries mixture ESL-EFL - Globalisation + new immigration - English more important in certain countries

1.2. Identity

1.2.1. - Nationalist awareness

1.2.2. - Emphasis on difference rather than similarity

1.2.3. - Maximise in all aspects Local vocabulary Spelling reflecting local pronunciation Deviant (from RP) grammatical constructions

1.2.4. --> Examples?

1.3. Internationalism

1.3.1. - International awareness (position in the world)

1.3.2. - Emphasis on intelligibility

1.3.3. - Minimise differences Internationally used vocabulary One spelling system Prescriptive ideas on grammar ...

1.3.4. --> NEED FOR A STANDARD - Whose English?

2. World Englishes

2.1. 1. Accent, dialect and variety

2.1.1. Accent: a distinctive way of pronouncing a language, especially one associated with a particular country, area, or social class

2.1.2. Dialect: a particular form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group

2.1.3. Variety: the quality or state of being different or diverse; the absence of uniformity or monotony

2.1.4. Linguistic snobbery - Connotations related to accents - Thinking some accents dialects, varieties are better than others - Thinking there is only one standard

2.2. 2. English in the world

2.2.1. 1. American 1584: Walter Raleigh - Roanoke Conflict with the native population Settlement mysteriously disappeared 1607: Chesapeake Bay (Jamestown) 1620: Cape Cod Bay - Plymouth Puritan settlers - Pilgrim Fathers Mayflower Intent: "new religious kingdom free from persecution" By 1640 25,000 people in area now known as New England Earlier (Southern) settlers < West Countries - Voicing of s sounds - r strongly pronounced after vowels Later (Northern) settlers < East of England - Lacking r after vowels - became dominant Other 17th century British features - Short, flat, a - Unrounded vowel in words like not - Vocabulary items 17th century settlers - From different linguistic backgrounds - Dialect boundaries blurred in close contact 18th century settlers - From Ireland and Scotland - By the Declaration (1776): 1/7 Scots-Irish - Moved down the coast and inwards - Broad accent Population increase - 17th century 250,000 > 1790 (first census) 4 million > 19th century 50 million 3 major dialect areas reflecting original settlements and later population movements NORTHERN (<East of England) SOUNTERN (<West Countries) MIDLAND (< Scots / Irish) - Picture not "neat" - Continuing influx of new immigrants from different parts of the world: 18th century - Continuing influx of new immigrants from different parts of the world: 19th century Personal names Origins of American state names New words and phrases from inter-cultural contact American distinctiveness 1. Pronunciation 2. Spelling 3. Grammar 4. Vocabulary

2.2.2. 2. Canadian 1497 - John Cabot - Newfoundland 17th century - English speaking settlers - Trade, farming, fishing 18th century - Conflict with the French - French deported, replaced by New England settlers - Direct migration from England, Ireland and Scotland - 1776 - Today English and French (officially bilingual) Canadian distinctiveness 1. Pronunciation: mixed 2. Spelling 3. Vocabulary Canadian dialects 1. Atlantic Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island 2. Quebec 3. Ottawa Valley 4. Southern Ontario 5. The Prairies 6. Arctic North 7. British Columbia (Vancouver)

2.2.3. 3. Black English (AAVE) Through slave trade from Africa to Americas Complex history in the US - Mutual influence slave owners - slaves? - Mid 19th century: abolitionist movement more evidence in literature - Late 19th century, following American Civil War (1861-1865): move to the North and its industrial cities - music as influencing force - 1960s: official segregation lifted - more opportunities for black people William Labov congressional testimony - Urban education debate: should AAVE be acknowledged as a cultural language and be used in education? - "Ebonics" AAVE distinctiveness 1. Grammar 2. Vocabulary

2.2.4. 4. Pidgins, creoles, and the Caribbean 16th century Spain starts slave trade between Africa and "the Indies" 17th century Atlantic triangular trade Developing population 1619: 20 slaves in Virginia 1776 (American Revolution): half a million 1865 (end American Civil War + abolition slavery): 4 million Slaves from radically different linguistic background Unable to plot against owners Still need to communicate - pidgin From pidgin to creole Influence of political history After abolition geographical mobility Caribbean distinctiveness: linguistic complexity Standard English (AmE or BrE) Variety of Standard English Standard West Indian English Creoles No clearly definable boundaries Also some English based creoles in Spanish dominated countries - WHOSE ENGLISH? Caribbean distinctiveness 1. Pronunciation 2. Spelling 3. Grammar 4. Vocabulary of different creoles

2.2.5. 5. Australian 1770: First European contact with Australia James Cook Established penal colony Mostly from London and Ireland Some "free" settlers (non-prisoners) From mid-19th century More and more "free" settlers Population development 1770-1820: 130,000 Now: 24 million Today still part of British Commonwealth - Queen Elisabeth official monarch of the island Dialectology not much researched in Australia Australian distinctiveness Remarkable social stratification Reflects the history of the country 1. Pronunciation 2. Spelling 3. Grammar 4. Vocabulary

2.2.6. 6. New Zealand Despite proximity, different story - Initial contacts 1770s-1810s - 1840: First official colony - Linguistic diversity - Exponential growth of population - Stronger connection with Britain - Growing prestige of American English - Growing sense of national identity - Fresh concern for the rights and needs of the Maori (15% population) New Zealand distinctiveness Not much known about regional variety Scottish influence on pronunciation and vocabulary Social varieties mildly present 1. Pronunciation 2. Spelling 3. Grammar 4. Vocabulary

2.2.7. 7. Asia South Asian English One of the most distinctive varieties (easy to recognize) Dialect continuum - Linguistic variety - Geographical variety - Social variety Contact history also varies - From colonial times - More recent through global trading Colonial history 17th century 18th century 19th century South Asian distinctiveness 1. Pronunciation 2. Grammar 3. Vocabulary

2.2.8. 8. South Africa African country Ex-colonial country Capitalist country Urban or urbanising country Christian country Summary of (linguistic) history Original inhabitants: Khoikhoi + San (click languages) 1652: Dutch colonists 1795: European turmoil 1806: Napoleon defeated, only now the Cape considered a colony of Britain 1820: British settlers 1833: Emancipation Act 1830s and 1840s: the Great Trek 1840s and 1850s: further British settlements, annexation of former Dutch colonies 1867: Discovery of gold and diamond areas in the Witwatersrand 1880-1881: first altercation between British and Boers in Transvaal (Afrikaners, Dutch) 1899-1902: Boer War, won by the British 1910: Union of South Africa created from the Cape and Natal colonies, as well as the Republics of Orange Free State and Transvaal 1914: National Party formed 1948 Defiance Campaign, led by Nelson Mandela: ostentatiously breaking apartheid laws 1960s: ANC banned and Mandela imprisoned 1961: became republic and left Commonwealth 1994: first multi-racial elections, won by the ANC In summary Initially British control - English as major language, but spoken by minority Animosity between Afrikaner (Dutch) and Britain - further consolidation of British (English) power Gradual shift to Afrikaner power - English still a major language, although first language of only few Apartheid - Black consciousness - acknowledgment of 11 official languages (English major language in government, education - perpetuating apartheid in a sense) Minority whites, coloureds and Indian speakers Continuum of accents Broad South African distinctiveness 1. Pronunciation 2. Grammar 3. Vocabulary

2.2.9. 9. British varieties Irish First English colony History reflected in language Irish distinctiveness Irish distinctiveness beyond its borders Scottish Variety of English After Norman invasion: 17th century: King James VI of Scotland becomes King James I of England 18th century Lallans (Lowland Scots) today Scottish distinctiveness: Dialect continuum Scottish distinctiveness Dialects Awareness of linguistic differences ALL DIALECTS ARE EQUAL, BUT SOME ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS RP Received Pronunciation Localisation Prestige accent Vowels and consonants Geordie Localisation Northern accent Scouse Localisation Mixed accent Yorkshire Localisation Northern accent Brummie Localisation Mixed accent West Countries Localisation Southern accent Cockney Localisation Southern accent Cockney rhyming slang Estuary Localisation Result of two social trends Distinctiveness Language attitudes Judgement based on dialect Often subconscious, but sometimes real-life consequences Differences Major differences between north and south

3. World Standard English

3.1. Standard English

3.1.1. 5 essential characteristics 1. Variety of English with no local base 2. Defined on the basis of grammar, vocabulary and spelling, not pronunciation 3. Certain prestige 4. This prestige ensures its wide dessemination in a given country through education and government 5. Usually a minority language, both in speakers and purposes

3.1.2. 8 different Standard Englishes

3.2. World Standard English

3.2.1. Some similarities - World Standard English? - 3 main possibilities for WSE Gradually preferred in world's institutions Varieties may merge Newly created Multidialectism and translanguaging!

3.2.2. Pressure from internationalism

3.2.3. Pressures from identity - Increasing nationalism (and extremism) - divergence influence from indigenous language

3.2.4. Antagonism against multilingualism - Japlish, Swedlish, Spanglish, ... - "un-pure" Influx of immigrants shifting the balance

3.2.5. Antagonism against English

3.2.6. Future of English? - Treathening English - Threatened English Englexit or a Englentrance?