Cranial Nerves II


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Cranial Nerves II by Mind Map: Cranial Nerves II

1. Facial Nerve (VII)

1.1. Nuclei:

1.1.1. Main motor nucleus Innervates (msucles of upper part of face): Muscles of facial expression Digastric muscle’s posterior belly Stylohyoid muscles Auricular muscles Stapedius

1.1.2. Sensory nucleus Receives taste fibers from: Palate Mouth’s floor Tongue’s anterior two thirds

1.1.3. Parasympathetic nuclei Superior salivatory nucleus Receives data from hypothalamus Receives data from solitary tract nucleus about taste Innervates: Lacrimal nucleus Receives data from hypothalamus (for emotional responses) Receives data from trigeminal nerve about irritation of cornea (leads to reflex lacrimation) Innervates:

1.2. Geniculate ganglion (sensory)

1.2.1. Carries taste sensations

1.3. Moves to ventral posteromedial nucleus (thalamus)

1.3.1. Taste area in postcentral gyrus

1.4. Exits from anterior surface between pons and medulla

1.4.1. Enters internal acoustic meatus with vestibulocochlear nerve Exits stylomastoid foramen

2. Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)

2.1. Vestibular nerve

2.1.1. Receives impulses from: Utricle Send data about position of head Saccule Send data about position of head Semicircular canals Send data about movements of head

2.1.2. Vestibular ganglion (found in internal acoustic meatus)

2.2. Cochlear nerve

2.3. Exits anterior surface in groove between pons and medulla

2.3.1. Enter vestibular nuclear complex Short ascending fibers Relay in ventral posterior nucleus (thalamus) Long descending fibers Made of superior, inferior, medial and lateral vestibular nuclei

2.4. Efferent fibers

2.4.1. Some move to cerebellum via inferior cerebellar peduncle

2.4.2. Move to: Oculomotor nucleus Trochlear nucleus Abducent nucleus

2.4.3. Connections between nuclei allow: Coordination of head and eye movements (maintain visual fixation) Maintaining balance

3. Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)

3.1. Nuclei include:

3.1.1. Main motor nucleus Innervates stylopharyngeus muscle

3.1.2. Sensory nucleus Sensations of taste Travel via glossopharyngeal ganglion Part of tractus solitarius

3.1.3. Parasympathetic nucleus Receives afferent fibers from: Hypothalamus Olfactory system Mouth (data about taste) Postganglionic fibers supply parotid salivary gland

3.2. Is both sensory and motor

3.3. Afferent carotid sinus data travels in this nerve and the vagus (associated with carotid reflex)

3.4. Exits anterolateral surface of medulla

3.4.1. Moves accompanied by internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein

3.5. Sensory branches supply:

3.5.1. Pharynx’s mucus membrane

3.5.2. Tongue’s posterior third

4. Vagus Nerve (X)

4.1. Sensory and motor

4.2. Nuclei include:

4.2.1. Main motor nucleus Efferent fibers innervate: Pharynx’s constrictor muscles Larynx’s intrinsic muscles

4.2.2. Sensory nucleus Is the lower portion of the tractus solitarius Carries sensations of taste

4.2.3. Parasympathetic nucleus Receives afferent fibers from: Glossopharyngeal nerve (carotid sinus reflex) Hypothalamus Efferent fibers supply (involuntary muscles): Bronchi Heart Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine

5. Accessory Nerve (XI)

5.1. Is motor

5.2. Made by union of:

5.2.1. Cranial root Joins vagus nerve Distributes to: Made of nucleus ambiguus axons

5.2.2. Spinal root Made of spinal nucleus' axons Innervates: Sternocleidomastoid muscle Trapezius muscle

5.3. Exits between the inferior cerebellar peduncle and olive (anterior surface of medulla)

6. Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

6.1. Is motor

6.1.1. Innervates all the tongue's intrinsic muscles (styloglossus, hypoglossus, genioglossus) Controls shape and movements of tongue

6.2. Exit as a series of roots between olive and pyramid