Community Participation in Cultural Festival

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Community Participation in Cultural Festival by Mind Map: Community Participation in Cultural Festival

1. China Cultural Heritage Management

1.1. community participation for mediating conflict and actors

1.1.1. pihak desa memfasilitas konflik penanggalan antara adat dan pemerintah

1.2. Contextual

1.2.1. centralised administrative roles of government

1.2.2. government-led methods and civil protest

1.2.2.1. Pak Lalu Putria dianggap sebagai utusan provinsi yang ga tahu apa-apa soal konteks lokal

1.2.3. co-existence of bottom-up and top-down management processes

1.2.3.1. ga ada inisiasi masyarakat sehingga tidak ada bottom-up style

1.3. can be measured w/ IAP2

2. Rural-community benefit

2.1. local resident attitude (respond)

2.1.1. offering tourism services

2.1.1.1. penginapan dll

2.1.2. keinginan untuk melanjutkan usaha

2.2. socio-cultural benefit

2.2.1. community benefit

2.2.1.1. enhance the image of community

2.2.1.2. show community uniqueness

2.2.1.2.1. dinas pariwisata

2.2.1.3. contributes to personal well-being

2.2.1.4. allow to sharing ideas between community

2.2.2. educational benefit

2.2.2.1. opportunity to learn new things

2.2.2.2. festival as a showcase for new idea

2.2.2.3. exposed to a variety of cultural experiences

2.2.2.4. enjoy meeting festival workers/performers

2.3. socio-cultural cost

2.3.1. quality of life

2.3.1.1. vandalism

2.3.1.1.1. ada vandalism di fasilitas pantai, namun perlu didalami apakah mengganggu well-being

2.3.1.2. traffic increases in level of unacceptable

2.3.1.2.1. jelas-jelas terjadi kemacetan di hari-hari puncak nyale

2.3.1.3. pedestrian traffic increases

2.3.1.4. noise level

2.3.2. community resources

2.3.2.1. festival as source negative competition between neighborhood community

2.3.2.2. some actors get more benefit than others

2.3.2.2.1. hotel dan resto menyumbang pajak ke pemerintah, sedangkan masyarakat hanya mendapat jatah parkir

2.3.2.3. powers is not equally distributed among actors

2.3.2.3.1. pemerintah provinsi menguasai kepanitiaan

2.3.2.4. the festival overtaxes community financial resources

2.4. local-resident well-being

2.4.1. enriched my life

2.4.2. accomplishing the purpose of festival

2.4.3. feel much better

3. karakteristik sustainable event (puppet Korea)

3.1. single-genre

3.2. for and by local resident

3.3. helps children to interested in culture

3.4. held on school holiday

3.5. Struggling of local festival

3.5.1. festival sebagai salah satu cara untuk mendapatkan pendanaan dari pemerintah pusat

3.5.1.1. Pemerintah provinsi dan kabupaten berebut hak pelaksanaan event untuk mendapatkan pendanaan

3.5.2. bertujuan untuk mengumpulkan sebanyak-banyaknya pengunjung tanpa memperhatikan tema atau sasaran

3.5.2.1. terjadi di bau nyale di mana semua pedagang atau pengunjung diterima

4. Wrestle festival of Bwatiye communities in North-eastern Nigeria

4.1. deification

4.1.1. Deification of the most high god who is regarded as the creator and the source of all spiritual power but inaccessibel to people directly

4.2. Cultural openness

4.2.1. electrified

4.2.2. connected

4.2.3. modernization

4.2.4. bring up another culture

4.2.4.1. terjadi juga di bau nyale

4.3. Factor of participation

4.3.1. kecurigaan masyarakat bahwa elit akan mengambil keuntungan dari festival secara sepihak

4.3.2. tidak adanya kekuatan terpusat yang menguasai kegiatan budaya

5. Rintangan (Limitation) Partisipasi Masyarakat (Tosun, 1999)

5.1. Operational

5.1.1. centralization of public administration

5.1.2. lack of co-ordination

5.1.2.1. koordinasi sudah berjalan baik sejak dipegang oleh Pak Lalu Chandra (One Gate)

5.1.3. lack of information

5.1.3.1. tidak ada informasi khusus untuk festival karena monopoli partisipasi

5.2. Structural

5.2.1. attitudes of professional

5.2.1.1. EO kurang melibatkan masyarakat

5.2.2. lack of expertise

5.2.3. elite domination

5.2.3.1. Provinsi: menggunakan legitimasi kultural dengan mitos putri mandalika

5.2.4. lack of appropriate legal system

5.2.5. lack of trained human resources

5.2.5.1. ada pelatihan di sisi industri

5.2.6. relatively high cost of community participation

5.2.7. lack of financial resources

5.3. Cultural

5.3.1. limited capacity of poor people

5.3.1.1. ada standar yang diterapkan untuk festival sehingga harus lolos seleksi

5.3.2. apathy and low level of awareness

5.3.2.1. ada hipotesis bahwa mereka bersikap apatis karena selama ini tidak dilibatkan

6. Closure of identities in Wanwei Case

6.1. invention tradition from below was quickly captured by larger political and economic forces beyond their pale

6.1.1. define the local identity

6.1.2. reinvent tradition

6.1.3. rewrite history

6.1.4. create new nuances for the gods

6.2. kekhawatiran

6.2.1. meningkatnya partisipasi pemerintah dan donor

6.2.1.1. kekhawatiran lain dalam hal kependudukan dan ekologi

7. New questions after pre-research

7.1. Di mana orang Kuta? mengapa mereka tidak terlihat dalam skena pariwisata? Bagaimana jika kita memikirkan ulang makna masyarakat?

7.1.1. What is community?

7.1.1.1. The definition of community is bet considered by beginning with people, their natural surroundings, and the relationship between the two. (Sandra Hill)

7.1.2. How to define them?

7.1.2.1. consent

7.1.2.2. environment

7.2. Tidak banyak partisipasi dalam struktural dan perencanaan festival

7.2.1. Apa itu partisipasi?

7.2.1.1. kunci demokrasi di mana salah satu indikatornya adalah penyertaan masyarakat dalam pengambilan keputusan

7.2.1.2. minimalist democratic

7.2.1.3. maximalist democratic

7.2.2. Apa bentuk partisipasi masyarakat yang ideal?

7.2.3. Bagaimana contohnya dalam skena pariwisata?

8. UtcaZene 2012, Vezprem, Hungary

8.1. Community participation is (often interpreted quite simply as) a way of involving local people in community planning and development.

8.1.1. Planning

8.1.2. development

8.2. inclusive engagement

8.3. motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) model by Olender & Thogersen (1995)

9. Linggarjati Festival, Kuningan

9.1. MOA Model

9.2. community engagement

9.2.1. The Indonesian culture encourages people to not show aggressiveness, and local people do not consider they have the ability or experience to organize an event. They prefer to be invited to participate and should be encouraged to do so.

9.2.1.1. Masyarakat Kuta, Lombok menunjukkan agresivitas agar mereka dilibatkan dalam festival atau setidaknya mendapatkan bagian

9.2.2. local community members actively participate in setting up the festival and as visitors, traders, or performers, but are not involved in the committee that plans and organizes the festival.

9.2.2.1. mirip banget

9.3. Tosun (1999) typology of community participation

10. Festival Culture in Global Perspective

10.1. Unsur-unsurnya

10.1.1. Performances

10.1.2. politik

10.1.3. kemeriahan

10.1.3.1. banyaknya pengunjung dan kemacetan

10.1.4. organisasi

10.1.4.1. EO

10.2. purest vision of festival

10.2.1. collective feeling of flow

10.2.2. communitas (Lat): people enjoying local life

10.2.2.1. perlu argumen yang menyatakan bahwa masyarakat perlu dilibatkan dalam festival

11. City Festivals and Festival Cities

11.1. Benefit of contemporary urban festival

11.1.1. potential of democratization of cultural participation

11.1.2. forging of social connections and identities

11.1.3. economic opportunities

11.1.4. tourism and image inhancement

11.1.5. unique artistic and cultural value

11.2. Jasper Chalcraft and Paolo Magaudda state that ‘festivals can be seen and analysed as terrains where different cultural, aesthetic and political patterns and values temporarily converge and clash, constantly creating, stabilizing and redefining the setting of festival inter- action’ (174, emphasis added).

11.3. Festivals are generally seen to have a significant potential for participation and inclusion due to their format and perceived broad appeal, but they are not exempt from social stratification.

12. Cultural construction of festival in Indonesia

12.1. Festival's functions

12.1.1. communating with the divine

12.1.2. securing agricultural dan human prosperity

12.1.3. helping regulate irrigations

12.1.4. being a forum which erect a history

12.1.5. constructing socioreligious ethnicity

12.1.6. harmonising relations between two ethnic groups

12.2. the sacred in the festival is higher in meaning than the cultural, but it interacts with the economic and the political.

12.2.1. Festival bau nyale tidak terkait dengan kultus Putri Mandalika, namun pengorbanannya untuk "semua orang" membuat festival dikuasai dan diorganisir oleh pemerintah provinsi

12.3. The sacred also attracts politics, and various political forces vie to become associated with festivals.

13. Implikasi Kebijakan Pariwisata

13.1. Community involvement dapat dilihat dari dua sudut pandang, yaitu proses perencanaan dan manfaat pengembangan

13.2. teori limitasi belum tentu valid untuk ekoturisme atau konsep pariwisata alternatif lainnya

13.3. mengabaikan kecenderungan elit lokal untuk mengadopsi pariwisata demi kepentingannya sendiri atau bergantung pada ahli dari luar

13.4. sistem administrasi yang terpusat merupakan masalah umum di negara berkembang sehingga menghambat pendekatan partisipatif

13.5. stuktur sosial, politik dan budaya negara berkembang telah melebih-lebihkan posisi negara sehingga membuat hubungan patron-klien antara politisi dan kepentingan bisnis elit

13.6. Keterlibatan LSM meningkatkan partisipasi publik

13.7. ditentukan oleh atribut budaya masyarakat lokal

13.8. Proses yang terinspirasi dari luar

13.9. pengembangan pariwisata adalah cerminan dari ekonomi politik industri dan hubungan sejarah, politik, ekonomi yang lebih luas di antara wilayah, negara dan kelas

14. Cornwall's Unpacking Participation

14.1. typology

14.1.1. Arnstein' Ladder (1969)

14.1.2. Jules Pretty' typology (1995)

14.2. in practice

14.3. who participates?

14.3.1. Farrington and Babington (1993) deep or wide participation

14.3.2. Optimum participation

14.4. from involvements to influence

14.5. participation in what

14.6. reclaiming participation

15. Festival budaya sebagai salah satu bentuk pariwisata

15.1. As Greg Richards and Robert Palmer point out, festivalization is also linked to ‘the spatial and economic restructuring of cities’ (30).

16. The Festivalization of Culture: Introduction

16.1. Historically, festivals, carnivals and fairs have been important forms of social and cultural participation, used to articulate and communicate shared values, ideologies and mythologies central to the world-view of relatively localized communities.

16.2. ritualistic or recurrent short-term events in which members of a community participate in order to affirm and celebrate various social, religious, ethnic, national, linguistic or historical bonds

16.2.1. Function

16.3. festivals have also become an economically attractive way of packaging and selling cultural performance and generating tourism

16.3.1. Economic

16.4. festivals are a significant aspect of the socio-economic and cultural landscape of contemporary everyday life.

16.5. festivals as significant nodal points for the anchoring of what Chaney (1996) refers to as lifestyle sites and strategies.

16.6. festivals are crucial to reinvigorating culture, regenerating tradition and strengthening Indigenous community and capacity.

16.7. the community festival can be an important means of helping communities to come to terms with and learn to accept and tolerate patterns of rapid community change that have occurred in recent decades due to the emergence of new diasporic trends

16.8. festivals often play a critical role in helping to break down barriers of prejudice and indifference, and to reinstate processes of social inclusion and acceptance.