Mental examination

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Mental examination by Mind Map: Mental examination

1. Sensation

1.1. We speak of sensation when a stimulus that acts on a sensory organ called the receptor is able to excite it and provoke a transmission reaction towards an integrating center, which in the case of man is the brain. The brain registers this stimulus as an experience that we call sensation

1.1.1. Characteristics: Receptors have a different physiological constitution depending on the stimulus they are capable of responding to. Hearing receptors are different from receivers for sight. However, all receivers have some common characteristics.

1.2. Types of Sensations:

1.2.1. -Retina -Skin cells -Golgi organ -Skin cells -Taste cells -Olfactory cells -Proprioceptive receptors -Free nerve endings


1.3.1. a) Amaurosis b) Anacusis, hearing loss c) Anosmia d) Ageusia e) Hypoaesthesia, anesthesia, hyperesthesia, paresthesia f) Agnosias g) Synesthesia

2. Thought

2.1. Thought is considered by the observer as a flow of ideas, symbols and associations directed towards a goal, and that are expressed through language (discursive-verbal thinking) or through action (practical thinking). Flow that has been driven by a problem and that attempts to lead to effective conclusions regarding that problem.

2.2. Normal psychology of thought, following this order:

2.2.1. A: Structure of thought B. Speed of thought C. Thought contents D. Thought control E. Language

3. Language

3.1. Language is made of perceptible signs. According to J. Delay and P. Pichot (1979), language transmits messages that have three functions: to indicate the state or intention of the person who emits the message (expression), to influence the recipient (call), and to inform about objects. or events (representation). As an expression, language can be a symptom, as a call it can be a sign, and as a representation it can be a symbol.


3.2.1. Spoken language disorders: a) Spontaneous language fluency b) Language comprehension c) Repetition capacity

3.2.2. Written language disorders: a) Alexias b) Agrafias

3.2.3. Other terms used in relation to language disorders: a) Paraphasia b) Aprosodia c) Acalculia d) Thalamic Aphasiae) Profound Dyslexia f) Hemialexia

4. Affectivity

4.1. Movements of psychic energy experienced by the self, of great driving force of psychic life and constant interaction with other areas of living. They have as characteristic the seal of the pleasant-unpleasant and of the bipolar arrangement of the opposites.

4.2. Affective disorders

4.2.1. -Anxiety -Vital sorrowship -Euforia -Effective planning -Anhedonia -Dysphoria -Distimy


5.1. Bodily and visible action of the psychic.

5.2. Psychomotor disorders

5.2.1. Hyponymia: Poverty and lack of facial movements. Akinesia: Total absence of expressive facial and body movements. Stupor: Total inability to express and execute commands, desires, fears and initiatives. Abulia: Inactivity due to lack of will. Apraxia: Inability to perform previously learned movements. Tics: Repetitive movement that arises without being able to be controlled by the will.


6.1. It is the real interiority of the experience (as opposed to the exteriority of the explorable biological process), it is also the subject-object split (a subject who gives his opinion is directed towards objects that he perceives, represents and thinks).

6.2. Psychopathology

6.2.1. -Quantitative Disorder Consciousness -Qualitative disorder of consciousness -Other terms used in relation to disorders of consciousness -Sleep-wake cycle disturbances


7.1. It is the operational capacity to work with the help of increasingly complicated and mobile schemes, according to a logical plan in solving a problem; in addition to adapting to new demands, using appropriately the guidelines of thought available.

7.2. Psychopathology

7.2.1. 1. Mental retardation or early compromise of intelligence 2. Delayed impairment or compromise of intelligence


8.1. Attention is the orientation of our psychic activity towards something that is experienced, thus allowing the experience, these two being a necessary condition for the processes of assimilation and logical reasoning, typical of intelligence, to be carried out.

8.2. Psychopathology

8.2.1. 1. Approxesia Hypoproxesia 2. Hyperproxesia 3. Hypermetamorphosis 4. Decreased concentration.


9.1. It corresponds to that instrument of experiencing that allows the experience to be retained and preserved in the psyche, and can be subsequently evoked. Also enabling the connection between past, present and future

9.2. Psychopathology

9.2.1. Quantitative memory disorders Fixation amnesia, Conservation amnesia, Evocation amnesia, Hypomnesia, Hypermnesia, Prodigious hypermnestia, Differentiated amnesia, Global amnesia, Lacunar or circumscribed amnesia)

9.2.2. Qualitative memory disorders Pseudoreminiscence (Pseudology, Fabulation, Confabulation), False recognition, Cryptomnesia, Dejá vu, Jamais vu, Psychogenic Amnesia (Circumscribed, Selective, Generalized, Continuous); Reduplicative paramnesia.


10.1. It is the instrument of experiencing that allows the subject to understand each of the moments of his life in relation to the past, the present and the future, as well as his location in relation to the spaces that surround him, in relation to himself and the context situational (allopsychic and autopsychic orientation).

10.2. Psychopathology

10.2.1. Partial disorientation: psychopathological orientation disorder, in which the subject is partially oriented. Its temporal-spatial location is insecure and fickle. Temporal orientation is affected to a greater extent. minus the spatial one. When autopsychic orientation is affected. usually the temporal-spatial orientation is already compromised.

10.2.2. Temporary disorientation: psychopathological orientation disorder in which the patient does not know what date he is on, ignores the day or month and year and cannot locate the time of day when he is.

10.2.3. Spatial disorientation: psychopathological orientation disorder, in which the patient does not know in what physical place he is. He can ignore what city he is in, whether he is at home, in a hospital or in another institution. He does not know where in the house he is, or what place he occupies.

10.2.4. Autopsychic disorientation: psychopathological orientation disorder in which the patient does not know who he is, where he comes from or where he is going. He is unaware of his social and family role and may even ignore his belongings.

11. Representations

11.1. They are images that arise in consciousness, recognized as a product of itself, they are intimate, lack vivacity and sharpness, totally depend on psychic activity and are modified by the will

11.1.1. Characteristics: Representation is the raw material with which thought works. Concrete and determined objects are experienced as perceptions and are actualized in the form of representations.

11.2. Types of representations:

11.2.1. 1. Mnemic representation: it is the representation of a memory evoked by memory. 2. Representations of fantasy: it is a representation that does not obey the existence of something real and is a creation product of the individual's imagination. Normal variants in which both pure forms participate are: 3. Eidetic representation 4. Dream representation



12. Perception

12.1. Once the nerve transmission from the receptor (manifested in the brain as an evoked potential) reaches the brain, this record undergoes a series of psychic elaborations until it becomes a perception.

12.1.1. Perception is the act of taking knowledge of sensory data from the world around us. This constitutes a mechanism through which man acquires the knowledge of the outer world, or of his own inner world.

12.2. Laws of Perception

12.2.1. 1. The whole is more than the sum of the parts. 2. Tendency to structure 3. Tendency to perceptual generalization 4. Tendency to pregnancy 5. Principle of constancy 6. Evolution of preforms to differentiated pregnant forms

12.3. Types of perceptions

12.3.1. 1. Sensory perception 2. Consecutive perception or post-sensory perception 3. Pareidolias


12.4.1. Quantitative a) Perception acceleration b) Perception delay c) Intensification of perception d) Weakening of perception of perception is reduced

12.4.2. Qualitative a) Illusions b) Hallucinations

13. References

13.1. Ricardo Capponi M, R. (1987). Psicopatología y semiología psiquiátrica. Editorial Universitaria Santiago de Chile