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Cognitivism by Mind Map: Cognitivism

1. Origin

1.1. Emerged in the early 20th century.

1.2. It arose from the flaws of behaviorism to explain why and how individuals make sense of and process information.

1.3. Many disillusioned psychologists claimed that prior knowledge and mental processes intervene between a stimulus and response.

1.4. Theorists

1.4.1. Edward Chase Tolman He's considered a pioneer in initiating the cognitive movement. After an experiment with rats in the 1920s, Tolman asserted that behavior had both purpose and direction, and occurred without reinforcement. He saw motivation as the key to transmuting expectations into behavior.

1.4.2. Jean Piaget

1.4.3. Lev Vygotsky

1.4.4. Jerome Bruner

1.4.5. German Gestalt

2. School views

2.1. Learning is an active process that involves the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information.

2.1.1. Learning happens best under conditions that are aligned with human cognitive architecture.

2.2. The learner is an active participant in the process of knowledge acquisition and integration.

2.2.1. Knowledge acquisition is a mental activity involving internal coding and structuring by the learner.

2.3. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

2.3.1. The process of intellectual and cognitive development resembles a biological act, which requires adaptation to environmental demands. The biological maturation causes distinct stages in cognitive development. Each of these stages is sequential, dependent on one another to develop, characterized by acquisition of discernable skills and reflects qualitative differences in cognitive abilities.

2.3.2. Children don't passively receive environmental stimulation. Rather, they actively seek it, naturally exploring and acting on their world in order to understand it.

2.3.3. The mechanism of change in cognition is equilibration, which is a dynamic interplay of progressive equilibria, adaptation, organization, growth and change in the master developmental process. Assimilation: process of integrating new information with existing knowledge. Accommodation: process of modification or transformation in existing cognitive structures in response to a new situation.

2.3.4. Schema refers to a hypothetical mental structure for organizing and representing generic events and abstract concepts stored in the mind in terms of their common patterns. Accretion: remembering new information on the basis of existing schema without altering the schema. Tuning: when new information that doesn't fit the existing schema causes schema to get modified in order to be more compatible with experience. Reconstructing: the formation of totally new schema on the basis of previous ones that cannot accommodate new experience.

2.4. Vygotsky’s Social Cognitivism

2.4.1. His study of learning concentrated on the interplay between the individual and society, and how social interaction and language come into play in affecting learning or the development of cognition.

2.4.2. General law of genetic development: every complex mental process is first and foremost an interaction between people.

2.4.3. Auxiliary stimuli: it affects the mastery of one’s own behavior

2.4.4. Zone of Proximal Development: the potential levels of development or what one can do with assistance.

2.4.5. Instructional implications Instruction should provide learners with authentic situations in which they must resolve dilemmas. Instruction should lead (i.e., precede) development. In an instructional setting, social "partners" should be at different levels of development, and they should jointly construct the problem solution. Individualized testing can give only a partial picture of the child’s capabilities because it fails to account for the ZPD.

3. Cognitive revolution

3.1. It emerged in the mid-1950s due to the impact of some cognitive theories in Education.

3.1.1. Theoretical and empirical work on cognitive processes Information processing Memory Attention Concept formation

3.1.2. Characteristics Search for new ways of understanding what learning is like and how it occurs, to this end psychologists focused on investigating mental structures and processes.

3.1.3. Difference with behaviorism Observed behavior empirically but only to make inferences about internal mental processes.

3.1.4. The primary emphasis How knowledge is acquired, processed, stored, retrieved and activated by the learner during the different phases of the learning process.