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Error Analysis by Mind Map: Error Analysis

1. Mistake: usually, accidental and you know it is wrong; therefore, it can be self-corrected if noticed or called to attention.

1.1. Example: while speaking, saying "I didn't went to school yesterday." - Acknowledging the mistake will take the learner to self correct it by saying "Oh, sorry. I didn't go to school yesterday."

2. Error: made out of lack of knowledge.

2.1. Example: using the word "embarrassed" instead of "pregnant" when learning the language and not knowing nor understanding the language yet. Once you know the meaning, you stop using it incorrectly.

3. Overt: it's very obvious and easy to identify. "A deviation in form."

3.1. Example: students using verbs incorrectly after using modals. "I can to eat more if I don't can eat dinner."

4. Covert: not so easy to identify, as they will be superficially well-formed, however, the meaning may be completely different.

4.1. Example: I once heard someone saying "It's an elbow.", which sounded grammatically correct; however, the student was trying to say that someone was stingy.

5. Categories of Errors

5.1. Addition: the presence of particles that shouldn't exist.

5.1.1. Example: "He wants for to go to the school."

5.2. Omission: removing particles that give a proper grammatical structure.

5.2.1. Example: "I like go the movies."

5.3. Substitution: exchanging a word for another with the same meaning/pronunciation.

5.3.1. Example: "I am going to assist to the meeting.", instead of "attend".

5.4. Ordering: not following grammatical structures accurately. This is noticeable in beginner levels.

5.4.1. Example: "Mine is the car blue.", instead of "The blue car is mine."

6. Global errors: they affect the whole meaning of a sentence, making it confusing and sometimes, impossible to decipher.

6.1. Example: "For the vacations I going to trip on a bark in the beach."

7. Local errors: they won't affect the sentence greatly, but they are noticeable. The listener will still be able to infer the meaning.

7.1. Example: "Let's call the policy, there is a thief!"

8. Interlingual transfer: errors caused by a strong influence of the native language.

8.1. Example: "The umbrella of the Maria is in the boot." - "Maria's umbrella is in the boat."

9. Intralingual transfer: a misunderstanding or over-generalization of rules once the beginner stage is over.

9.1. Example: "He cannot came to the school because he be sick."

10. Fossilization: when incorrect language becomes a habit and it's hard to correct.

10.1. Example: "Billy don't want to go to the party, because she don't dance."

11. Stabilization: when the learner has mastered the language to a point where he/she is able to self-correct.

11.1. Example: "I couldn't to join to...uh, I couldn't go to the meeting because..."

12. Error Treatments/Types of Feedback:

12.1. Recast: reformulates or expands the mistake, making it noticeable for the learner to correct. (Rewording)

12.1.1. Example: S: I can't to come to school tomorrow. T: Oh, you can't come to school tomorrow. Why not? Are you feeling sick?

12.2. Clarification request: the teacher requests for clarification once he/she identifies the mistake. (Say that again)

12.2.1. Example: S: My friend Michael, she is in the bathroom. T: Excuse me?

12.3. Meta-linguistic feedback: provides more context, tips or information to help the learner better understand and properly correct the mistake.

12.3.1. Example: L: My friend don't eat meat. T: I see. Do you remember what happens with third person singular conjugations?

12.4. Elicitation: helps the learner to self-correct. It gives "prompts" to the learner, so they can catch up easily.

12.4.1. Example: S: My siblings plays soccer on Sundays. T: Your that a plural or singular noun? S: Ah! My siblings play soccer on Sundays.

12.5. Explicit correction: directly tells the student what should be corrected on the spot. (Stop!)

12.5.1. Example: S: I am a estudent in the class. T: "e" before "s" in the beginning of words. Can you please repeat your sentence?

12.6. Repetition: the teacher repeats what the learner said, but correcting it and adding a change in intonation, so he/she notices what should be corrected.

12.6.1. Example: S: Thank you for your advices. T: Thank you for your "advice".