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Innovation System by Mind Map: Innovation System
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Innovation System

The concept of the innovation system stresses that the flow of technology and information among people, enterprises and institutions is key to an innovative process. It contains the interaction between the actors who are needed in order to turn an idea into a process, product or service on the market. Wikipedia:A national system of innovation has been defined as follows: “ .. the network of institutions in the public and private sectors whose activities and interactions initiate, import, modify and diffuse new technologies.” (Freeman, 1987) “ .. the elements and relationships which interact in the production, diffusion and use of new, and economically useful, knowledge ... and are either located within or rooted inside the borders of a nation state.” (Lundvall, 1992) “... a set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovative performance ... of national firms.” (Nelson, 1993) “ .. the national institutions, their incentive structures and their competencies, that determine the rate and direction of technological learning (or the volume and composition of change generating activities) in a country.” (Patel and Pavitt, 1994) “.. that set of distinct institutions which jointly and individually contribute to the development and diffusion of new technologies and which provides the framework within which governments form and implement policies to influence the innovation process. As such it is a system of interconnected institutions to create, store and transfer the knowledge, skills and artefacts which define new technologies.” (Metcalfe, 1995)“.. a human social network that behaves like a sociobiological system, wherein people have developed patterns of behavior that minimize transaction costs caused by social barriers resulting from geography, lack of trust, differences in language and culture, and inefficient social networks.” (Hwang and Horowitt, 2012)

Actors

Innovation team

Schiphol Retail

Teachers Inholland

Schiphol Airport users

Relationships

Competition

Transaction

Networking

Main functions

Develop experience

Diffuse innovations

Use innovations

Activities

Provision of R&D

Provision of Research and Development (R&D), creating new knowledge, primarily in engineering, medicine, and the natural sciences. Managemen Press. Kindle Edition.

Competence building

Competence building (provision of education and training, creation of human capital, production and reproduction of skills, individual learning) in the labor force to be used in innovation and R&D activities. Fagerberg,Kindle Edition.

Formation of new product markets

Articulation of quality requirements

Articulation of quality requirements emanating from the demand side with regard to new products.

Creating and changing organizations

Creating and changing organizations needed for the development of new Welds of innovation, e.g. enhancing entrepreneurship to create new firms and intrapreneurship to diversify existing firms, creating new research organizations, policy agencies, etc. Fagerberg, Jan; MKindle Edition.

Networking

Networking through markets and other mechanisms, including interactive learning between different organizations (potentially) involved in the innovation processes. This implies integrating new knowledge elements developed in different spheres of the SI and coming from outside with elements already available in the innovating firms. Fagerberg, Jan; .; NelKindle Editi

Creating and changing institutions

Creating and changing institutions—e.g. IPR laws, tax laws, environment and safety regulations, R&D investment routines, etc—that inXuence innovating organizations and innovation processes by providing incentives or obstacles to innovation. FaC.; Nelson, RichaKindle Edition.

Incubating activities

Incubating activities, e.g. providing access to facilities, administrative support, etc. for new innovative efforts.

Financing

Financing of innovation processes and other activities that can facilitate commercialization of knowledge and its adoption.

Provision of consultancy

Provision of consultancy services of relevance for innovation processes, e.g. technology transfer, commercial information, and legal advice. F NelsonKindle Edition.

Boundaries

Geographical

Sectoral

In terms of activities

Networks

Network properties

Size

Centrality

Density

Strong/weak ties

Structural holes

Multiplexity

Clique

Core/periphery

Network types

Primordial

Supply chain

Invisible college

Strategic

Network roles

Commander

Subordinate

Cooperator?

???

Network motivations

Effectance

Safety and affiliation

Status and rank