Patterns and Change (Paper 1) [MASTER]

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Patterns and Change (Paper 1) [MASTER] by Mind Map: Patterns and Change (Paper 1) [MASTER]

1. Patterns in resource consumption

1.1. Patterns of resource consumption

1.1.1. Evaluate the ecological footprint as a measure of the relationship between population size and resource consumption

1.1.2. Identify international variations in its size

1.1.3. Discuss the two opposing views (neo-Malthusian and anti-Malthusian) of the relationship between population size and resource consumption

1.2. Changing patterns of energy consumption

1.2.1. Examine the global patterns and trends in the production and consumption of oil

1.2.2. Examine the geopolitical and environmental impacts of these changes in patterns and trends

1.2.3. Examine the changing importance of other energy sources

1.3. Conservation strategies

1.3.1. Discuss the reduction of resource consumption by conservation, waste reduction, recycling and substitution

1.3.2. Evaluate a strategy at a local or national scale aimed at reducing the consumption of one resource

2. Patterns in environmental quality and sustainability

2.1. Atmosphere and change

2.1.1. Describe the functioning of the atmospheric system in terms of the energy balance between solar and longwave radiation

2.1.2. Explain the changes in this balance due to external forcings (changes in solar radiation, changes in the albedo of the atmosphere and changes in the longwave radiation returned to space)

2.1.3. Discuss the causes and environmental consequences of global climate change

2.2. Soil and change

2.2.1. Explain the causes of soil degradation

2.2.2. Discuss the environmental and socio-economic consequences of this process, together with management strategies

2.3. Water and change

2.3.1. Identify the ways in which water is utilized at the regional scale

2.3.2. Examine the environmental and human factors affecting patterns and trends in physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity

2.3.3. Examine the factors affecting access to safe drinking water

2.4. Biodiversity and change

2.4.1. Explain the concept and importance of biodiversity in tropical rainforests

2.4.2. Examine the causes and consequences of reduced biodiversity in this biome

2.5. Sustainability and the environment

2.5.1. Define the concept of environmental sustainability

2.5.2. Evaluate a management strategy at a local or national scale designed to achieve environmental sustainability

3. Disparities in wealth and development

3.1. Measurements of regional and global disparities

3.1.1. Define indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalization and Human Development Index (HDI)

3.1.2. Explain the value of the indices in measuring disparities across the globe

3.2. Origin of disparities

3.2.1. Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity, residence, parental education, income, employment (formal and informal) and land ownership

3.3. Disparities and change

3.3.1. Identify and explain the changing patterns and trends of regional and global disparities of life expectancy, education and income

3.3.2. Examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health

3.4. Reducing disparities

3.4.1. Discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances

3.4.2. Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce disparities

4. Populations in transition

4.1. Population change

4.1.1. Explain population trends and patterns in births (Crude Birth Rate), natural increase and mortality (Crude Death Rate, infant and child mortality rates), fertility and life expectancy in contrasting regions of the world

4.1.2. Analyse population pyramids

4.1.3. Explain population momentum and its impact on population projections

4.2. Responses to high and low fertility

4.2.1. Explain dependency and ageing ratios

4.2.2. Examine the impacts of youthful and ageing populations

4.2.3. Evaluate examples of a pro-natalist policy and an anti-natalist policy.

4.3. Movement responses—migration

4.3.1. Discuss the causes of migrations, both forced and voluntary.

4.3.2. Evaluate internal (national) and international migrations in terms of their geographic (socio-economic, political and environmental) impacts at their origins and destinations

4.4. Gender and change

4.4.1. Examine gender inequalities in culture, status, education, birth ratios, health, employment, empowerment, life expectancy, family size, migration, legal rights and land tenure.