Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Schools should not be political or Democratic.

1.1.1. How Democratic are schools?

1.1.2. Who is involved in the decision making in these school systems?

1.1.3. What determines the curriculum?

1.1.4. What role does special interest groups have?

1.1.5. How will you access your students?

2. History of U.S Education

2.1. The school has a responsibility for teaching the illiterate.

2.1.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

2.1.1.1. Colleges were formed before the country was founded. EX, Harvard, Yale.

2.1.1.2. Colleges were established before the country was created. ex, Harvard. Yale

2.1.1.2.1. Post World War II

2.1.1.2.2. Education For All

2.1.1.3. Education in the south was mainly for the upper class.

2.1.1.4. The Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Charles Elliot.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Sociology- Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

3.1.1. Persell's analysis model

3.1.1.1. The institutional

3.1.1.1.1. Media, Church, family

3.1.1.2. The interpersonal

3.1.1.2.1. All the interactions within such organizations such as face to face.

3.1.1.3. The intrapsychic

3.1.1.3.1. The individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by society.

3.1.2. The Big Question

3.1.2.1. How can a school create a more functional and equal society?

3.1.3. Relation between schools and society.

3.1.3.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission.

3.1.3.2. Teachers believe all students can learn.

3.1.3.3. Constant review of student progress.

3.1.3.4. Strong leadership.

3.1.3.5. Schools teach students how to act in society.

3.1.3.6. Schools select students for educational mobility

3.1.3.7. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement.

3.1.4. Goal of Education

3.1.4.1. To train individuals for employment or thinking.

3.1.5. Effects of schooling on individuals

3.1.5.1. How people learn.

3.1.5.1.1. Mobility

3.1.5.1.2. Job performance

3.1.5.1.3. Employment

3.1.5.1.4. Income

3.1.5.2. Students believe that with a higher education means more income.

3.1.5.2.1. Top 2%of the world possess 80% of the wealth.

3.1.5.3. People segregate themse3lves into their own comfort zones..

3.1.5.4. Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority.

3.1.5.5. Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs.

3.1.5.6. One-third of the children are at risk of failing.

3.1.5.7. 15 million are reared by a single parent.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Love-centered

4.2. Pragmatist

4.2.1. Student needs.

4.2.1.1. Aptitude Surveys

4.2.2. Social Reconstructionist

4.2.3. Meet the needs of society.

4.3. progressivism

4.3.1. Student centered

4.4. Essentialism

4.4.1. Teacher centered

4.4.2. Adm. Driven Cirriculum

4.5. Perenialist

4.5.1. Self-Promoting

4.5.1.1. Individuals make the difference.;

4.6. Idealism

4.6.1. Socrates

4.7. Realism

4.7.1. Aristotle

4.7.1.1. The material world is real.

4.7.1.2. It exist without anyone perceiving.

4.7.1.3. The real world exists before ideas exist.

4.7.1.4. Aristotle developed a system of logical thinking.

4.7.1.5. Syllogism or a system of logical thinking.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. The structure of US schools.

5.1.1. Constitution does not provide for education.

5.1.1.1. Private Schools

5.1.1.1.1. There are 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the US

5.1.1.1.2. Constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students.

5.1.2. US department of education was created in 1970.

5.1.2.1. Degree of openness

5.1.2.1.1. Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist.

5.1.2.1.2. Very democratic process of education.

5.1.2.1.3. Open to all and very inclusive.

5.1.3. Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states.

5.1.3.1. Centralization

5.1.3.1.1. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion.

5.1.3.1.2. 1930's there were 128,000 public school districts.

5.1.3.1.3. 1980's there were under 16,000 districts.

5.1.4. Each state is responsible for education.

5.1.4.1. Student Composition

5.1.4.1.1. 53.5% are white.

5.1.4.1.2. Ten states have no minorities.

5.1.4.1.3. large cities are heavily multiracial.

5.1.4.1.4. New York City is 85.6% minority.

5.1.4.1.5. Detroit is 97.4% minority.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

6.1.1. Social Influences

6.1.2. Political Influences

6.1.3. Societies Influences

6.1.4. Cultural influences

6.1.5. Special Interests

6.2. Idealists say we should teach great works.

6.3. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

6.3.1. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum.

6.4. Social Meliorists

6.4.1. Reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction.

6.4.2. Political influences of the curriculum have determine and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught.

6.4.3. Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their beliefs.

6.4.4. Social order determines the curriculum.

6.4.5. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order.

6.5. Other influences on curriculum.

6.5.1. Evolutionists

6.5.2. Creationists

6.5.3. Science and Math

6.5.4. Nation at Risk

6.5.5. NCLB

6.5.6. RTT

6.6. Formal Curriculum

6.6.1. What is cognitively taught.

6.7. Informal or Hidden Curriculum

6.7.1. Taught but not obvious to sight.

6.8. Null Curriculum

6.8.1. What is not taught but is learned (values of the community).

6.9. Do students actually learn what is taught?

6.9.1. What is learned and what is being taught may have a large gap between them.

6.9.2. Closing the gap?

6.9.2.1. Schooling has an impact on learning.

6.10. How will you teach and what determines how you teach? One word describes or determines your approach.

6.10.1. Maturity.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Do you have the following beliefs?

7.1.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and to get ahead.

7.1.2. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

7.2. Calculating educational and life outcomes

7.2.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

7.2.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification.

7.3. 3 Systems

7.3.1. Caste- a person's social level is determined by race or religion.

7.3.2. Estate systems- a person's social level is determined by family value and worth.

7.3.3. Class Systems- a person's worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

7.4. Class

7.4.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

7.4.2. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

7.5. Race

7.5.1. Has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

7.5.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

7.5.3. ACT and SAT have favored white middle class Americans.

7.6. Gender

7.6.1. In the last 20 years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

7.6.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

7.7. Equal Opportunity

7.7.1. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA education of handicapped 1975.

7.7.2. IDEA 1996

7.7.3. REI- regular education initiative or mainstreaming.

7.8. The Coleman Study

7.8.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools.

7.8.2. Private school students outperform public school students.

7.8.3. Differences in schools do not make a difference.

7.8.4. the difference is in how much more demanding private schools are than publ;iuc schools.

7.8.5. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

8.1.1. Functionalist theorist support the ideas that each students' success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

8.1.2. Conflict theorists support the idea that student success is affected.

8.1.3. Student- centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture, and the student.

8.1.4. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.2. Student Centered Explanations

8.2.1. Genetic difference

8.2.2. Cultural Deprivation

8.2.3. Cultural differences

8.3. School Centered Explanations

8.3.1. School Financing

8.3.2. Effective Schools

8.3.3. Between School Differences

8.3.4. Curriculum and Pedagogic

8.3.5. Within school

8.3.6. Curriculum and ability Grouping

8.4. Gender and Schooling

8.4.1. Do schools reproduce inequality?

8.4.1.1. Family produces inequality, schools don't

9. Educational Reform

9.1. The rise of the common school.

9.1.1. Education for women was limited.

9.1.2. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and the emotionally disturbed.

9.1.3. Jefferson supported Public education.

9.1.4. "Normal" schools were created for teacher education.

9.1.4.1. John Dewey, the father of modern education.

9.1.4.2. Schools became the focus of social problems.

9.1.5. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education. 1837.

9.1.6. Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

9.1.7. The first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in 1856.

9.1.8. Cities contained enormous amounts of uneducated people which divided social class.

9.1.9. School Choice

9.1.10. Charter schools

10. Educational Reform and School Improvement

10.1. School Choice

10.2. Charter Schools

10.3. Tuition Vouchers

10.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

10.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public top any district)

10.6. School-Bussiness partnerhips

10.7. Privatization of Schools

10.8. School to work Programs

10.9. Better teachers