Categories of Disability

By Chris Almich

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Categories of Disability by Mind Map: Categories of Disability

1. Visual Impairment

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

1.2. Intervention

1.2.1. Students with visual impairments will need information in non-visual ways. Since writing on the board or giving handouts is ineffective, one solution is to have these students work in groups with non-impaired students.

1.3. Assistive technology

1.3.1. Screen readers

1.3.2. Voice recognition software

1.3.3. Braille embossers

2. Speech or Language Impairment

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

2.2. Intervention

2.2.1. Help students learn the proper pronunciation of words

2.2.2. Help students who stutter speak fluently

2.2.3. Improve communication effectiveness

2.3. Assistive technology

2.3.1. Communication boards are a simple, low-tech solution for many students with speech or language impairments. They consist of pages of pictures or words that students can choose from in order to communicate.

3. Multiple Disabilities

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation, orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

3.2. Intervention

3.2.1. Peer tutoring has been proven to have positive results for students with multiple disabilities in a number of separate research studies. However, care must be taken that the tutoring is not a one-way relationship, but is reciprocal.

3.3. Assistive technology

3.3.1. Handheld personal computers can be programmed in various ways to help students with many different types of disabilites. They are portable and easy to use.

4. Orthopedic Impairment

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

4.2. Intervention

4.2.1. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

4.2.2. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

4.2.3. Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

4.2.4. Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

4.3. Assistive technology

4.3.1. Information based

4.3.1.1. speech recognition software

4.3.1.2. screen reading software

4.3.1.3. augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards)

4.3.1.4. academic software packages for students with disabilities

4.3.2. Mobility based

4.3.2.1. canes

4.3.2.2. walkers

4.3.2.3. crutches

4.3.2.4. wheelchairs

4.3.2.5. specialized exercise equipment

4.3.2.6. specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development

5. Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

5.2. Intervention

5.2.1. Break down learning tasks into small steps. Each learning task is introduced, one step at a time. This avoids overwhelming the student. Once the student has mastered one step, the next step is introduced.

5.3. Assistive technology

5.3.1. Communicators

6. Emotional Disturbance

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:

6.1.1.1. (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

6.1.1.2. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

6.1.1.3. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

6.1.1.4. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

6.1.1.5. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

6.2. Intervention

6.2.1. Teaching Strategies

6.2.1.1. Emphasize positive behaviours and program for success.

6.2.1.2. Supply extra opportunities for success.

6.2.1.3. Be tolerant.

6.2.1.4. Use good judgment.

6.2.1.5. Teach social skills.

6.2.1.6. Teach self-control, self-monitoring, and conflict resolution.

6.3. Assistive technology

6.3.1. Low tech: Point sheets and behavior charts

6.3.2. Mid tech: iPods can be used to listen to audiobooks or simply to let students listen to calming music

6.3.3. High tech: Nintendo Wii can be used as a motivation tool as well as an educational tool. The games require cooperation with peers and lots of movement which is great for reducing stress levels in the classroom

7. Deafness

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. A hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

7.2. Intervention

7.2.1. Some teaching strategies that help deaf students are:

7.2.1.1. Circular seating arrangements offer Deaf or hard of hearing students the advantage of seeing all class participants, especially in a seminar setting.

7.2.1.2. Repeat the comments and questions of other students, especially those from the back rows; acknowledge who has made the comment so the Deaf or hard of hearing student

7.2.1.3. On request from the student, assist with finding an effective notetaker or lab assistant from the class.

7.2.1.4. If possible, provide transcripts of audio information

7.3. Assistive technology

7.3.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1s8WkvhV8U

8. Autism

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

8.2. Intervention

8.2.1. There are number of different interventions to use when teaching a child with autism. Some examples are using Discrete Trial Teaching in which skills are broken in to small, manageable steps and are taught using prompts. Prompts are eventually taken away as the child begins to master the skill. Another intervention is called Floortime. During Floortime, instruction is carried out through play activities on the floor. Many more examples of interventions can be found in the link provided in this section.

8.3. Assistive technology

8.3.1. One interesting assistive is called the Bluebee Pals. They are plush toys that talk, read and sing with children in order to create a fun and relaxed atmosphere. Another new technology is called MyVoice, which provides non-verbal communicators an easy way to communicate their needs and desires. It is "the digital big brother of a picture board". Many more assistive technologies can be found by following the link provided.

8.4. Case Studies

8.4.1. http://leader.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2289534

9. Other Health Impairment

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—

9.1.1.1. (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and

9.1.1.1.1. (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

9.2. Intervention

9.2.1. Students with AD/HD

9.2.1.1. Allow extra time for these students to shift from one activity or environment to the next.

9.2.1.2. Allow extra time for finishing assignments or for testing.

9.2.1.3. Clearly define your goal.

9.2.1.4. Develop objectives to achieve this goal.

9.2.1.5. Define the actions necessary to achieve the desired outcome.

9.3. Assistive technology

9.3.1. Since this category is so broad, there are no specific assistive technologies that can be recommended.

9.4. Case study

9.4.1. http://www.kidsmatters.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Case-Study-Julia-2.pdf

10. Hearing Impairment

10.1. Definition

10.1.1. An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of "deafness."

10.2. Intervention

10.2.1. The same teaching strategies that are used for deaf students are effective when teaching students with less severe hearing impairments

10.2.1.1. Circular seating arrangements offer Deaf or hard of hearing students the advantage of seeing all class participants, especially in a seminar setting.

10.2.1.2. Repeat the comments and questions of other students, especially those from the back rows; acknowledge who has made the comment so the Deaf or hard of hearing student

10.2.1.3. On request from the student, assist with finding an effective notetaker or lab assistant from the class.

10.2.1.4. If possible, provide transcripts of audio information

10.3. Assistive technology

10.3.1. Some of the most common and useful technologies for deaf or hard of hearing students are hearing aids and cochlear implants.

11. Developmental Delay

11.1. Definition

11.1.1. Children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

11.2. Intervention

11.2.1. Speech and Language Therapy

11.2.2. Occupational Therapy

11.2.3. Physical Therapy

11.2.4. Behavior Therapies

11.3. Assistive technology

11.3.1. Low-tech: albums, binders, dry erase boards, folders, picture cards, or other items that facilitate communication

11.3.2. Mid-tech: overhead projectors, tape recorders, voice output communication aids (VOCAs)

11.3.3. High-tech: adaptive hardware for keyboards, computers, specialty software, VOCAs (more complex than mid-tech devices)

12. Deaf-Blindness

12.1. Definition

12.1.1. Concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

12.2. Intervention

12.2.1. audiological services

12.2.2. vision services

12.2.3. occupational and physical therapy

12.2.4. speech and language therapy

12.2.5. special instruction services

12.2.6. medical and nursing services

12.2.7. psychological and social work services

12.2.8. health services necessary for the child to benefit from other early intervention services

12.2.9. family training, counseling, and home visits

12.2.10. transportation to enable the child and family to receive early intervention services

12.3. Assistive technology

12.3.1. Technologies for assisting deaf-blind students range from low-tech things such as magnifiers, to high tech braille embossers.

12.4. Case Study

12.4.1. Linked here is a case study of a deaf-blind leaner named Jon. Jon uses a variety of different technologies to aid his learning. Although he has very limited vision, he is still a visual learner.

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Definition

13.1.1. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

13.2. Intervention

13.2.1. Students with traumatic brain injury react to the same sort of teaching strategies that other disabled students well to. For instance, simplifying questions by breaking them in to smaller, manageable parts has been successful.

13.3. Assistive technology

13.3.1. Organization

13.3.1.1. calendar boards

13.3.1.2. schedule organizers

13.3.1.3. voice organizers

13.3.1.4. medication reminders

13.3.1.5. Smartphones

13.3.2. Access to information

13.3.2.1. speech recognition software

13.3.2.2. screen reading software

13.3.3. Mobility

13.3.3.1. canes

13.3.3.2. crutches

13.3.3.3. wheelchairs

13.3.3.4. specialized chairs, desks, and tables

14. Specific Learning Disability

14.1. Definition

14.1.1. A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

14.2. Intervention

14.2.1. Students with specific learning disabilities typical qualify for time to be spend in resource rooms. These rooms allow for individual instruction.

14.3. Assistive technology

14.3.1. There are many different tools to assist children with specific learning disabilities. Most of them are based around information processing. For example, students with specific learning disabilities can benefit greatly from things like speech recognition software and screen-readers.